The Prohibition of Genocide as an International Norm of jus cogens and its Implications for International Law
The crime of Genocide is considered as one of the most severe crimes against humanity. The international legal definition of the crime of genocide is found in Article (II) and (III) of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment the Genocide. However, the Convention failed to cover many of the major human rights violations and mass killings committed by perpetrators and their accomplices. This article focuses on the interpreting the definition of genocide, and addressing the problems involved in both the prosecution and defence of charges of genocide when committed by individuals. It will argue that not every act committed with intention to destroy, in whole or in part, a protected group will lead to a rise in the responsibility for genocide. Only those, which are mentioned in Article (II) of the Genocide Convention, may form the intent (Actus Reus) of genocide. Rather, it will analyse how the Genocide Convention allows the establishment of Universality Jurisdiction against the crime of genocide by prescribing that genocide is a crime under international law, and how the States can exercise Universal Jurisdiction over acts committed outside a State’s territory by a foreigner.
1. A, Cassese, (2009), The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice, New York : Oxford University Press.
2. A, Cassese, (2008), International Criminal Law. (2nd ed.) New York : Oxford University Press.
3. A, Zahar., and G, Sluiter, (2008), International Criminal Law : A critical Introduction. New York : Oxford University Press.
4. I, Bantekas. and S, Nash, (2007), International Criminal Law. (3th ed.) New York : Routledge-Cavendish.
5. L, Reydam, (2003), Universal Jurisdiction, International and Municipal Legal Perspective. New York : Oxford University Press.
6. M, Cherif Bassiouni, (1999), Crime against Humanity in International Law, (2nd ed.) The Hague/ London/ Bosto : Kluwer Law International.
7. M, Boot, (2002), Genocide, Crime against Humanity, War Crimes, Nullm Crimen Sine Lege and the Subject Matter Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court. Antwerpen- Oxford-New York : Intersentia Publishers.
8. M, D. Evans, (2008), International Law. (2nd ed.) New York : Oxford University Press.
9. M, Inazumi, (2005), Universal Jurisdiction in Modern International Law, Expansion of National Jurisdiction for Prosecution Serious Crimes under International Law. Oxford : Intersentia Publisher.
10. R, Cryer. H, Friman. D, Robinson. and E, Wilmshurst, (2007), An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure. New York : Cambridge University Press.
11. S, Macedo, (2004), Universal Jurisdiction, National Court and Prosecution of Serious Crimes Under International Law. Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press.
12. W, A. Schabas, (2000), Genocide in International Law. New York : Cambridge University Press.
13. W, A. Schabas, (2009), Genocide in International Law, the Crime of Crimes. (2nd ed.) Cambridge University Press.
14. Nick, Grief, (2008), The War Crimes and International Criminal Law entries in Cane P and Conaghan J (eds.), The New Oxford Companion to Law, Oxford : OUP (2008),(pp. 604-605). and (pp. 1233-1234).
JOURNAL ARTICLES AND CASES
1. Alexander, Z. (2001), Command Responsibility of Civilian Superiors for Genocide. Leiden Journal of International Law 14, 591–616.
2. David, Hawk, (1987), Institute of the International Conference on the Holocaust and Genocide. Internet on the Holocaust and Genocide. Jerusalem 8, 6.
3. Frank, C. (1989), Genocide in the 20th Century’, Definition of Genocide and Their Implications for Prediction and Prevention. Holocaust Genocide Studies 4, 2, 149-160.
4. Harmen, van Wilt, (2006), Genocide, Complicity in Genocide and International v. Domestic Jurisdiction : Reflections on the van Anraat Case. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 4, 2, 1 239–257.
5. Kenneth, C. R. (1988), Universal Jurisdiction Under International Law. Texas Law Review 66, 785–807.
6. Nina, H.B. Jorgensen, (2002), The Genocide Acquittal in the Sikirica Case before the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the Coming of Age of the Guilty Plea. Leiden Journal of International Law 15, 2, 389-407.
7. Otto, T. (2004), Genocide, and Its Particular Intent to Destroy in Whole or in Part the Group as Such. Leiden Journal of International Law 14, 2, 399-408.
8. Rytis, S. (2004), Soviet Genocide Trials in The Baltic States : The Relevance of International Law. Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law 7, 388-409.
9. William, A. S. (2007), Origins of the Genocide Convention : From Nuremberg to Paris. Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 40, 1, 35-55.
10. William, R. Slomanson, (2008), Introductory Note to International Criminal Court; Summary of the Prosecutor’s Application For Warrant of Arrest Agist Omar Hassan AlBahir.. American Society of International Law; Cambridge University Press 47, 829-832.
11. Xavier, P. (2006), The Principles of Universal Jurisdiction and Complementarily : How Do the Two Principles Intermesh? International Review of the Red Cross : Selected article on international humanitarian law 88, 862.
12. Zev, G. (2006), Judaic Studies. Shofar, Project Muses. An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies 176.
13. Diane F. Orentlicher. (2009), Genocide, Crimes of War Project. Crimes of War Project. Retrieved from http://www.crimesofwar.org/thebook/genocide.html
14. Luc, Walleyn. (2003), The Sabra & Shatila Massacre and the Belgian Universal Jurisdiction. Retrieved from http://programs.ssrc.org/gsc/publications/ICA_memos/Panel3.Walleyn.doc
15. Prevent Genocide International. (2004), Retrieved from http ://www.preventgenocide.org/
16. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Article 6 (genocide) (Adopted on 17 July 1998). Retrieved from http://www.preventgenocide.org/ab/1998/
17. Genocide. (Adopted on 17 July 1998), Entry into force : 1 July 2002. List of ratifications and signatures for updated information, Retrieved from : www.icc-cpi.int or http ://www.iccnow.org
18. ICJ ( 8 April 1993), Advisory Opinions and Orders of the International Court of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.icj-cij.org/files/case-related/91/7313.pdf
19. ICTY Prosecutor v Tihomir Blaskic, (29 October 1997), case IT-95-14-AR, 29. Retrieved from http://www.icty.org/x/cases/blaskic/acdec/en/71029JT3.html
20. ICTY Prosecutor v Krstic. Trial Chamber Judgment, (2 August 2001), paras 582-84. Retrieved from http://www.icty.org/x/cases/krstic/tjug/en/krs-tj010802e.pdf
21. Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the Secretary-General pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1564 (2004) of 18 September 2004, 1 February 2005, UN Doc S/205/60. Hereinafter; Darfur Report
22. The Prosecutor v. Goran Jelisic case, (IT-95-10-A), (2001), http ://www.icty.org/case/jelisic/4
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
AJNU is committed to protecting the privacy of the users of this journal website. The names, personal particulars and e-mail addresses entered in this website will be used only for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available to third parties without the user's permission or due process. Users consent to receive communication from the AJNU for the stated purposes of the journal. Queries with regard to privacy may be directed to firstname.lastname@example.org.