The Effect of Arabic Language on EFL University Students’ Use of Metaphorical Expressions in Writing

  • Rasha H. Ahmed College of Languages, Nawroz University, Duhok, Kurdisatn Region - Iraq
  • Hussein A. Ahmed College of Languages, Nawroz University, Duhok, Kurdisatn Region - Iraq

Abstract

Metaphor is an expression that is used to denote an object, not from a literal meaning, but a similar, figurative meaning. It uses symbols in the place of reality, makes writing more interesting and helps readers understand the ideas the author is trying to convey. Metaphor is a means to think about something, find a new meaning for it, and view it from a different perspective. The current study focuses on the role of EFL university students' native language, namely Arabic in shaping the metaphors used in their writing. It endeavours to find out the types and the frequencies of metaphorical expressions used in essay writing by a sample of EFL university Arab students. As such, the study hypothesizes that  EFL university students use of metaphorical expressions in writing is affected by their native language, i.e. Arabic, and that the metaphors used by EFL Arab university students fall within the already known and common domains of metaphor use. To validate the preceding hypotheses, a sample of (21) Arab 3rd year students at the Dept. of English / College of Education/ University of Mosul, Duhok Site during the academic year 2015-2016 was randomly selected and asked to write essays on topics pertinent to their daily life. The results show that there are many types of metaphorical expressions' used by the sample of the study in their writing. This validates the hypotheses set for the current study which state that metaphors are a universal linguistic phenomenon that exists in all languages and are open for use by the speakers of those languages.

References

1. Al-Jumah, F. H. (2007).A Comparative Study of Metaphor in Arabic and English General Business Writing with Teaching Implications. Pennsylvania : University of Pennsylvania.
2. Allan K.; Bradshaw J.; Finch G.; Burridge K.and Heydon G. (2010).The English Language and Linguistics Companion. UK : Palgrave.
3. Batchelor, H. (1981). "Metaphor in Academic American Encyclopedia", vol. 13, New Jersey : Arete Publishing Company.
4. Birolini, A. (2014). Reliability Engineering : Theory and Practice. Berlin : Springer.
5. Black, M. (1993)."More about metaphor". In A. Ortony (Ed.),Metaphor and thought). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, pp. 19–41.
6. Cameron, L. (2003).Metaphor in Educational Discourse. London : Continuum.
7. Carpenter, B. (1997). Type-Logical Semantics. England : A Bradford Book, The MIT Press.
8. Crystal, D. (1992). A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 2nd edition. New York : Blackwell Publishers.
9. Goalty, A.(1997).The Language of Metaphors. New York : Routledge.
10. Grady, J.; Oakley T. and Coulson S. (1999). " Blending and metaphor." In Gibbs and Steen (eds.) (1999) Metaphor in cognitive linguistics. Amsterdam : John Benjamins, p.79-100
11. Grice, P. (1990). Studies in the way of words. Harvard : Harvard University Press.
12. Lado, R. (1961). Language Testing : The Construction and Use of Foreign Language tests. London : Longman Group Ltd.
13. Lakoff, G. (1993). The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor. In Ortony, A (Ed), Metaphor and Thought. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, pp.202-251.
14. Lakoff, G. and Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago : The University of Chicago Press. In Cognitive Science 4, 195-208 : doi : 10. 1207/ s 15516709 Cog 0402_4. Article first publish online : 11 Feb 2010.
15. Lobner, S. (2002). Understanding Semantics. UK : Hodder Education and Hachette UK Company.
16. McGregor, W. B. (2015). Linguistics : An Introduction. London, New York, Bloomsbury Publishing Plc.
17. Palmer, F. R. (1976). Semantics. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
18. Rasekh, A. E. and Ghafel, B. (2011) Basic Colors and Their Metaphorical Expressions in English and Persian : Lakoff's Conceptual Metaphor Theory in Focus. 1st International Conference on Foreign Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics May 5-7 2011 Sarajevo.
19. Renton, N. E. (1990). Metaphorically Speaking. New York : Time Warner Company.
20. The Encyclopedia Americana (1978). New York : Penguin Books.
21. 1. عبد الرحمن بن حسن حَبَنَّكَة الميداني الدمشقي (1996). البلاغة العربية : دمشق : دار القلم، الطبعة الأولى.
22. 2. عبد العظيم إبراهيم محمد المطعني (1995). المجاز عند الإمام ابن تيمية وتلاميذه بين الإنكار والإقرار. القاهرة : مكتبة وهبة، الطبعة الأولى.
Published
2018-07-20
How to Cite
AHMED, Rasha H.; AHMED, Hussein A.. The Effect of Arabic Language on EFL University Students’ Use of Metaphorical Expressions in Writing. Academic Journal of Nawroz University, [S.l.], v. 7, n. 3, p. 145-153, july 2018. ISSN 2520-789X. Available at: <http://journals.nawroz.edu.krd/index.php/ajnu/article/view/219>. Date accessed: 18 nov. 2018. doi: https://doi.org/10.25007/ajnu.v7n3a219.
Section
Articles