Freezing–Thawing Behavior of Lime Treated Fine–grained Soil

  • Abdulrahman Aldaood Civil Department, College of Engineering, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq
  • Amina Khalil Civil Department, College of Engineering, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq
  • Marwen Bouasker Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, CRMD, France
  • Muzahim Al-Mukhtar Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, CRMD, France


This research study was carried out to investigate the impact of freeze-thaw cycles on the mechanical and the mineralogical properties of lime treated fine-grained soil. The unconfined compressive strength, wave velocity, volume change, water content, pH and electrical conductivity values were determined during freeze-thaw cycles. Furthermore, Mercury porosimetry and X-ray diffraction tests were carry out to determine changes at microscopic level. The soil used in this study was taken at a site near Jossigny region in eastern part of Paris–France. The soil samples were treated with optimum lime percent 3% depending on the pH method, then cured for 28 days at 20 °C. The soil samples were subjected to 12 cycles of freeze-thaw following ASTM procedure.    The result referred that, natural soil exhibit no strength resistance against freeze-thaw cycles and failed during the first hours of freeze-thaw cycles. Analyses indicated that freeze-thaw cycles reduce the unconfined compressive strength of all the tested samples. Moreover, water content during the applied cycles increases and induces significant volume changes. During freeze-thaw cycles, the cracks propagation which caused by the formation of ice lenses in the pores of lime treated soil samples were consider to have significant. The changes in the micro-structural and mineralogical properties reduce the durability  of the lime treated soil samples when subjected to freeze-thaw cycles.


1. Yarbasi,N., Kalkan, E., Akbulut, S., 2007. Modification of the geotechnical properties, as influenced by freeze–thaw, of granular soil with waste additives. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 48 (1), 44–54.
2. Kamei, T., Ahmed, A., Shibi, T., 2012. Effect of freeze–thaw cycles on durability and
3. strength of very soft clay soil stabilized with recycled bassanite. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 82, 124–129.
4. Bell, F.G., 1996. Lime stabilization of clay minerals and soils. Eng. Geol. 42, 223–237.
5. Bin-Shafique, S., Rahman, K., Azfar, I., 2011. The Effect of Freezing–Thawing Cycles on Performance of Fly Ash Stabilized Expansive Soil Subbases. Geo-Frontiers (ASCE). pp. 697–706.
6. Jafari, M., Esna-ashari, M., 2012. Effect of waste tire cord reinforcement on unconfined compressive strength of lime stabilized clayey soil under freeze–thaw condition. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 82, 21–29.
7. Wang, D.Y., Ma, W., Niu, Y.H., Chang, X.X., Wen, Z., 2007. Effects of cyclic freezing and thawing on mechanical properties of Qinghai–Tibet clay. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 48 (1), 34–43.
8. Aldaood, A., Bouasker, M., Al-Mukhtar, M., 2016. Effect of water during freeze–thaw cycles on the performance and durability of lime-treated gypseous soil. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 123, 155–163.
9. Al-Kiki, I., Al-Attalla, M., Al-Zubaydi, A., 2011. Long term strength and durability of clayey soil stabilized with lime. Eng. Technol. J. 29 (4).
10. Ingles, O.G., Metcalf, J.B., 1973. Soil Stabilization Principles and Practice. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
11. Al-Mukhtar,M., Khattab, S., Alcover, J.F., 2012. Microstructure and geotechnical properties of lime-treated expansive clayey soil. Eng. Geol. 139–140, 17–27.
12. Dempsey, B.J., Thompson, M.R., 1972. Vacuum saturation method for predicting freeze– thaw durability of stabilized materials. Highway Research Record 442. Highway Research Board, Washington, D.C., pp. 44–57.
13. Shihata, S.A., Baghdadi, Z.A., 2001. Simplified method to assess freeze–thaw durability of soil cement. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 13 (4), 243–247.
14. Eades, J., Grim, R., 1966. A quick test to determine lime requirements for lime stabilization. Transp. Res. Board 139, 61–72.
15. McIntire, P., 1991. Nondestructive testing handbook, Vol. 7: Ultrasonic testing American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Columbus.
How to Cite
ALDAOOD, Abdulrahman et al. Freezing–Thawing Behavior of Lime Treated Fine–grained Soil. Academic Journal of Nawroz University, [S.l.], v. 7, n. 4, p. 75-80, dec. 2018. ISSN 2520-789X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 16 june 2019. doi:

Most read articles by the same author(s)