The Potential and Social Acceptability of Renewable Energy sources in North Iraq: Kurdistan Region
Kurdistan region government(KRG) is located to the north of Iraq, its Energy System has suffered from a lack of electricity, and many challenges to be overcome to meet future increases in demand for power, about 85% of the production of power is almost depended on fossils fuels, while the remaining 15% is covered by hydro-electrical plants. Therefore, the renewable energy sources are alternative sources of energy for reducing energy demand and CO2 emissions in KRG. In order to review the Kurdistan potential renewable energy and social-acceptance toward renewable energy source use and implementations, mixed methodology was used qualitative and quantitative to provide the most complete analysis of study problems. In this study, the potential renewable energy sources (RES) has been examined as well as the survey which was designed with three groups of questions: awareness of renewable energy sources, person background information and willingness to invest in renewable energy sources. The result showed that Kurdistan region has a great ability to utilize renewable energy sources and long-term economic viability of using RES in house wasn’t clear for 40% of 320 interviews. About 63% of the participants were ready to pay extra cost to get renewable energy. The majority of the participant think that public sector should take the first step towards renewable energy production as well as providing incentives and business models to motivate peoples to implement RES in their building.
2. Azabany, A. Khan, K. (2014). Energy analysis for replacing fossil fuel energy source of electricity withsolar cells in the uk and kurdistan, iraq. Asian Journal of Science and Technology, 5(9), 541-545.
3. Christian Reuter and Thomas Spielhofer. (2017). Towards social resilience: A quantitative and qualitative survey on citizens' perception of social media in emergencies in Europe. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 121, 168-180.
4. Devine-Wright, P. (2007). Reconsidering public attitudes and public acceptance of renewable energy technologies: a critical review. Manchester: Manchester Architecture Research Centre, University of Manchester.
5. Devine-Wright, P. (2011). Enhancing local distinctiveness fosters public acceptance of tidal energy: A UK case study. Energy Policy, 39(1), 83-93.
6. Devine-Wright, P. (2011). Place attachment and public acceptance of renewable energy: a tidal energy case study. J. Environ. Psychol, 31, 336–343.
7. Ekurd. (2016). Privatisation of Iraqi Kurdistan’s electricity to solve power shortage: ministry. Retrieved 9 9, 2017, from http://ekurd.net/privatisation-kurdistan-electricity-2016-08-11
8. Hamadamin, H. K., Jahfer, M. S., Hemn, M. S. (2015). Utilization of Solar Energy for Electricity Generation in Kurdistan - Koya City. Advances in Energy and Power, 3(2), 15-18.
9. Hamed, M. J., Yousif, A. K., Fakhri, H. I. (2013). Environmental Issues in Erbil City. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), 4(8), 3509-3515.
10. HenrikLund. (2010). Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development. Energy, 32(6), 912-919.
11. Hussein, A. K., Miqdam, T. C. (2012). Status and future prospects of renewable energy in Iraq. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16, 6007-6012.
12. Issa, B. (2014). Mega-project plans for developing the power and water sector in iraq and kurdistan region of iraq. Dubai: UAE.
13. JanUrban and Milan Ščasný. (2012). Exploring domestic energy-saving: The role of environmental concern and background variables. Energy Policy, 47, 69-80.
14. JeffreySwofford and MichaelSlattery. (2010). Public attitudes of wind energy in Texas: Local communities in close proximity to wind farms and their effect on decision-making. Energy Policy, 38(5), 2508-2519.
15. KRG. (2017). Kurdistan's geography and climate. Retrieved 9 10, 2017, from http://www.gov.krd/p/p.aspx?l=12&p=213
16. kurdishglobe. (2013). Power production to double in three years. Retrieved 9 12, 2017, from Erbil Governorate: http://hawlergov.org/en/article.php?id=1360835393
17. Malik, F. A. (2014). Fisheries and Aquaculture Activities in Kurdistan Region. Retrieved 1 9, 2017, from slideshare: http://www.slideshare.net/firasaljader/fisheries-and-aquaculture-activities-in-kurdistan-region
18. Mirza, S. A., Arif,A. A. (2015). Economical Environmental and Performance Analysis for a200 KW Ground Mounted Photovoltaic System: Koya City,Kurdistan of Iraq. International Journal of Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Sciences, 3(3), 72-84.
19. Mohamed, T. A. (2011). Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles iraq. iraq: FAO. Retrieved 2017, from http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/AGPC/doc/Counprof/PDF%20files/iraq.pdf
20. N.Hall, P.Ashworth, P.Devine-Wright. (2013). Societal acceptance of wind farms: Analysis of four common themes across Australian case studies. Energy Policy, 58, 200-208.
21. Populus. (2005, 6). Energy Balance of Power Poll Fieldwork. Retrieved 9 25, 2017, from http://www.populus.co.uk/wpcontent/uploads/2016/01/download_pdf-060705-The-Times-Energy-balance-of-power.pdf
22. Qusai, Y. A., Lookman, M. M. . (2012). Dust storm in Erbil city as a result of climatic change in Kurdistan Region Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Science, (pp. 40-44). Baghdad,.
23. Scddeek, R.E.,Wahab, S.K. (2013). Wind Energy Proposed In Kurdistan-Iraq. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 3(6), 1531-1535.
24. UNDP. (2015). Reconstruction of the Kurdistan Region's Electricity Sector. Retrieved 9 10, 2017, from http://www.iq.undp.org/content/iraq/en/home/operations/projects/poverty_reduction/kr-electricity-reconstruction.html
25. Viswanath Venkatesh and Hillol Bala. (2008). Technology Acceptance Model 3 and a Research Agenda on Interventions. Decision Sciences, 39(2), 273–315.
26. Wolsink, M. (2000). Wind power and the NIMBY-myth: institutional capacity and the limited significance of public support. Renewable Energy, 21(1), 49-64.
27. Yassen, H. (2016). Energy Sources and Utilization in Iraq Kurdistan Region. Ministry of electricity Kurdistan region. Retrieved 12 1, 2017, from https://eneken.ieej.or.jp/data/4502.pdf.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
AJNU is committed to protecting the privacy of the users of this journal website. The names, personal particulars and e-mail addresses entered in this website will be used only for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available to third parties without the user's permission or due process. Users consent to receive communication from the AJNU for the stated purposes of the journal. Queries with regard to privacy may be directed to email@example.com.