Assessment of Waste Generation rate of Medical Hazardous in Duhok Governorate (Proposal of alternative disposal and management methods)
The developments and improvement of the public and the private healthcare sector in the recent years in Duhok governorate considered as the main factor for increasing the production rate of per capita patient generation of hazardous waste (Bio-Medical Waste). Another important factor contributes in hazardous waste volume is the increase in health services and public education. Generation of waste caused direct impacts on human health and environment through the pollution of soil, water and air. The present study was carry out to assess the sources and the data quantities of hazardous wastes, analysis of these collected data is achieved by using of GIS Application. In 2014, it was found that 253.143 tons of hazardous waste were produced in Duhok. About 30% of the waste is not being sorted from the municipal solid waste, i.e. disposed directly to dumps or landfills. Inadequate disposal of hazardous waste can related to contamination of surface and ground water supplies, and risk impacts on communities and their environment. In addition the aim of this assessing is focused on the importance of hazardous waste management and to develop a proposal for treatment and disposal management methods in compliance with the international environmental regulations.
2. Almuneef, M., & Memish, Z. A. (2003). Effective medical waste management: it can be done. American journal of infection control, 31(3), 188-192
3. Al-Zahrani, M. ,S. A. (2000). Health care risk waste in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal, Vol. 21 (3) pp 245-250.
4. Baveja, G., Muralidhar, S., & Aggarwal, P. (2000). Hospital waste management–an overview. Hospital today, 5(9), 485-486.
5. Bdour, A., Altrabsheh, B., Hadadin, N., & Al-Shareif, M. (2007). Assessment of medical wastes management practice: A case study of the northern part of Jordan. Waste Management, 27(6), 746-759.
6. Bennett, G. (1992). Medical waste management and disposal: by US Environmental Protection Agency, VJ Landrum, RG Barton, R. Neulicht, M. Turner, D. Wallace and S. Smith, published by Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, NJ, 1991, ISBN 0-8155-1264-3, 541 pp., $82.00: Elsevier
7. Chartier, Y. (2014). Safe management of wastes from health-care activities: World Health Organization.
8. Chung, S.-s., & Lo, C. W. (2003). Evaluating sustainability in waste management: the case of construction and demolition, chemical and clinical wastes in Hong Kong. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 37(2), 119-145.
9. Drews, F.A., Pasupathi, M., & Strayer, D.L. (2008). Passenger and cell phone conversations in simulated driving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 14, 392-400. doi: 10.1037/a0013119
10. Diaz et al, L. S. (2005). Alternatives for the tretment and disposal of healthcare. waste managemnt, 626-637.
11. EPA, s. 4. (2003). Dioxin: Conitinuing EPA Efforts to Reduce the Pubibc Exposure to Dioxin Risks. Washington, DC: United States Office of Research Environmental Protection and Development.
12. Fakher, J. A. (2008). Healthcare waste mangment in Jordan King Abdullah University hospital case syudy. Umm Al-Quraa, J.Sci. Med. Eng., Vol.20 No.1, pp.61-77.
13. Fatima, M. K. (2016). Evaluation of Medical solid wastes managment in some hospitals in Najaf city/Iraq. Kufa Journal of engineering, Vol. 7, No. 3, P.P. 38-54.
14. Jang, Y.-C., Lee, C., Yoon, O.-S., & Kim, H. (2006). Medical waste management in Korea. Journal of Environmental Management, 80(2), 107-115.
15. Klangisn, P. H. (2011). Medical waste Treatment and Disposal Methods used by Hospitals in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. Journal of the Air & waste management Association, 516-526.
16. Liberti, L., Tursi, A., Costantino, N., Ferrara, L., & Nuzzo, G. (1996). Optimization of infectious hospital waste management in Italy: Part II. Waste characterization by origin. Waste management & research, 14(5), 417-431.
17. Marinković, N., Vitale, K., Holcer, N. J., Džakula, A., & Pavić, T. (2008). Management of hazardous medical waste in Croatia. Waste Management, 28(6), 1049-1056.
18. Mohee, R. (2005). Medical waste charecterisation in healthcare institution in mauritius. Waste management, 25(6), 575-581.
19. Ropeik, D., & Gray, G. M. (2002). Risk: a practical guide for deciding what's really safe and what's dangerous in the world around you: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
20. Rushbrook, P. (2000). Starting health care waste management in medical institutions OMS health care waste practical information series (Vol. 1): OMS.
21. Sabour, M. R., Mohamedifard, A., & Kamalan, H. (2007). A mathematical model to predict the composition and generation of hospital wastes in Iran. Waste Management, 27(4), 584-587.
22. Santosh Vani, S. B. (2017). Hazardous Waste- Impact on Health and Environment for sustainble devleopment in Indai. WSN, 158-172.
23. Shinee, E., Gombojav, E., Nishimura, A., Hamajima, N., & Ito, K. (2008). Healthcare waste management in the capital city of Mongolia. Waste Management, 28(2), 435-441.
24. Shreedevi, D. (2007). Hazardous waste managment at the healthcare facilities. India: http://www.indus.org/healthcare.
25. Tudor, T., Noonan, C., & Jenkin, L. (2005). Healthcare waste management: a case study from the National Health Service in Cornwall, United Kingdom. Waste Management, 25(6), 606-615.
26. HO. (2018). WHO Fact sheet. http : // www.healthcarewaste.org.
27. WHO. (2005). Management of Solid Health-Care Waste at Primary Health-care Centers. Geneve, Switzerland: WHO Document Production Services.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
AJNU is committed to protecting the privacy of the users of this journal website. The names, personal particulars and e-mail addresses entered in this website will be used only for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available to third parties without the user's permission or due process. Users consent to receive communication from the AJNU for the stated purposes of the journal. Queries with regard to privacy may be directed to firstname.lastname@example.org.