Assessment of Waste Generation rate of Medical Hazardous in Duhok Governorate (Proposal of alternative disposal and management methods)

  • Maha M. AL-Ghabban College of Engineering, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region - Iraq
  • Nashwan Sh. Mizzouri College of Engineering, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region - Iraq
  • Fadhil R. Mahmood College of Engineering, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region - Iraq
  • Hussein H. Hassan College of Engineering, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region - Iraq
  • Kadhim I. Abdulrahman College of Engineering, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region - Iraq


The developments and improvement of the public and the private healthcare sector in the recent years in Duhok governorate considered as the main factor for increasing the production rate of per capita patient generation of hazardous waste (Bio-Medical Waste). Another important factor contributes in hazardous waste volume is the increase in health services and public education. Generation of waste caused direct impacts on human health and environment through the pollution of soil, water and air. The present study was carry out to assess the sources and the data quantities of hazardous wastes, analysis of these collected data is achieved by using of GIS Application. In 2014, it was found that 253.143 tons of hazardous waste were produced in Duhok. About 30% of the waste is not being sorted from the municipal solid waste, i.e. disposed directly to dumps or landfills. Inadequate disposal of hazardous waste can related to contamination of surface and ground water supplies, and risk impacts on communities and their environment. In addition the aim of this assessing is focused on the importance of hazardous waste management and to develop a proposal for treatment and disposal management methods in compliance with the international environmental regulations.


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How to Cite
AL-GHABBAN, Maha M. et al. Assessment of Waste Generation rate of Medical Hazardous in Duhok Governorate (Proposal of alternative disposal and management methods). Academic Journal of Nawroz University, [S.l.], v. 7, n. 4, p. 139-152, dec. 2018. ISSN 2520-789X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 20 jan. 2019. doi: