The Bologna Process: Question of Priorities and Relevance

  • Mohammed A. Shallal Scientific Research and Development Centre, Nawroz University, Duhok, Kurdistan Region - Iraq


Recent trends in some higher education institutions (HEIs) have reflected the tendency to adopt, or to embark on the path of, the Bologna Process (BP). This paper considers the tools and operations involved, presents brief aspects of BP and attempts to shed light on the requirements with the purpose of creating an acceptable picture of the processes and possibly prioritizing them. It also questions the relevance of some BP aspects to HEIs in the region and the appropriateness of using the title of ‘The Bologna Process’ to describe the currently attempted implementations. Issues related to the revision of curriculum structures as well as the introduction of flexibility into the curricula in light of accreditation standards are also briefly addressed.


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How to Cite
SHALLAL, Mohammed A.. The Bologna Process: Question of Priorities and Relevance. Academic Journal of Nawroz University, [S.l.], v. 8, n. 3, p. 1-5, june 2019. ISSN 2520-789X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 04 apr. 2020. doi: