Towards International Legitimization of the Responsibility to Protect’s Third Pillar

  • Arsalan H. AlMizory College of Law and Politics, Department of Law, Nawroz University, Kurdistan Region - Iraq

Abstract

Over the past few years, the question whether international law permits the use of force not in response to existing violence but to avert and prevent mass atrocity crimes occurring within the boundaries of a sovereign State has taken on added significant in the aftermath of the humanitarian tragedies of the 1990s. Responsibility to Protect (R2P) is a complicated and emerging norm of international law, which represents the start of a new era for the United Nations (UN), seeks to provide a means for the Security Council to take enforcement measures under Chapter VII to prevent mass atrocity crimes. The research discusses that when the Security Council is deadlock and peaceful measures have been exhausted, it is important to have a legal basis of using limited armed force as a last resort in the name of humanitarian intervention, to avert overwhelmingly atrocity crimes that a government has shown it is unwilling or unable to prevent. The research analyzes the case of Syria as a case study, which demonstrates that the presence of certain conditions enables the UN Security Council to implement R2P norm to save civilian populations from mass human rights violations. 

References

1- Lowe V. and Tzanakopoulos A, Humanitarian Intervention (Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Oxford University Press 2011).
2- UK Materials on International Law (69 British Year Book of International Law 1998).
6.2 Journal Articles
1- Annan K, ‘Two Concepts of Sovereignty’ (Economist) (18 September 1999) https://www.economist.com/international/1999/09/16/two-concepts-of-sovereignty (Last visited 22 July 2019).
2- Bassiouni M. C, ‘Searching for Peace and Achieving Justice: The Need for Accountability’ (1996) 59 Law & Conte P.
3- Borger J. and Inzaurralde B, ‘West 'ignored Russian offer in 2012 to have Syria's Assad step aside' (The Guardian) (15 September 2015). Available at https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/sep/15/west-ignored-russian-offer-in-2012-to-have-syrias-assad-step-aside (Last visited 19 March 2019).
4- Cohen Z. and Liptak K, ‘US, UK, and France launch Syria strikes targeting Assad's chemical weapons’ (CNN Politics) (14 April 2018). Available at https://edition.cnn.com/2018/04/13/politics/trump-us-syria/index.html (Last visited 19 March 2019).
5- Greenwood C, ‘International Law and the Pre-Emptive Use of Force: Afghanistan, Al-Qaida, and Iraq’ (2003) 4 San Diego Int’l L.J.
6- Gray C, ‘From the Unity to Polarization: International Law and the Use of Force against Iraq’ (2002) 13 EJIL.
7- Gordon R. E, ‘Intervention by the United Nations: Iraq, Somalia, and Haiti’ (1996) 31 Tex. Int’l L.J.
8- Halberstam M, ‘The Legality of Humanitarian Intervention’ (1995) 3 Cardozo J. Int’l & Comp.L
9- ‘House of Commons Hansard’, Debates, (26 February 2001). https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200001/cmhansrd/vo010226/debtext/10226-20.htm (Last visited 19 March 2019).
10- Merriam J. J, ‘Kosovo and the Law of Humanitarian Intervention’ (2001) 33 Case W. Res. J. Int’l L.
11- Marcus M, ‘Humanitarian Intervention without Borders: Belligerent Occupation or Colonization’? (2002) 25 Hous. J. Int’l L.
12- Nada V. P, ‘Tragedies in Somalia, Yugoslavia, Haiti, Rwanda and Liberia –Revisiting the Validity of Humanitarian Intervention Under International Law’ (1998) 26 Denv. J. Int’l L. & Pol’y.
13- ‘Press Statement: GCIJ Files Article 15 Communication with ICC Prosecutor on Syria’ (The Guernica Group) (March 2019) (London, Madrid & San Francisco) (https://www.guernicagroup.org/news/press-statement-gcij-files-article-15-communication-with-icc-prosecutor-on-syria?fbclid=IwAR0pGpploQfcueeOKi9qJa6fpL-X3sQoMIuouHyL8Ct0ON2oj2L50keR63A (Last visited 18 March 2019).
14- Stahn C, ‘Responsibility to Protect: Political Rhetoric or Emerging Legal Norm’ (2007) 101 The Ame. J. Int’l L.
15- Schmitt M. N, ‘Preemptive Strategies in International Law’ (2003) 24 Mich. J. Int’l L.
16- Schachter O, ‘International Law in Theory and Practice’ (1991) Hereinafter Schachter International Law.
17- Wolf D, ‘Humanitarian Intervention’ (1998) 9 Mich. Y.B. Int’l Leg. Stud.
18- Williams P. R, Ulbrick J. T and Worboys J, ‘Preventing Mass Atrocity Crimes: The Responsibility to Protect and the Syria Crises’ (2012) 45 Case Western Reserve J. Int’l L.
19- (…) ‘A brief history of peace attempts and failures in Syria’ (TRT World) (27 October 2018). Available at https://www.trtworld.com/mea/a-brief-history-of-peace-attempts-and-failures-in-syria21155/amp?fbclid=IwAR0hcI_9zRBL0SxbtPS4TakPKFF3FtQUM1KXY4v0drpdY1nZT4CGb0UQPnQ (Last visited 19 July 2019).
20- (…) ‘Syria: the Astana peace process’ (France 24) (5 Sep 2018). Available at https://www.france24.com/en/20180905-syria-astana-peace-process (Last visited 19 July 2019).
21- (…), JNS.org, ‘After eight years of civil war, the return of Syria to the Arab world’ (The Israel Press) (12 March 2019). https://theisraelpress.com/middle-east/after-eight-years-of-civil-war-the-return-of-syria-to-the-arab-world/ (Last visited 20 July 2019).
22- (…) ‘Syria Emergency’ (UNHCR) (13 March 2019) https://www.unhcr.org/syria-emergency.html (Last visited 20 July 2019).
23- (…) ‘Syria war: Lawyers submit first war crimes cases against Assad’ (BBC News) (7 March 2019). Available at https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-47483714 (Last visited 20 July 2019).
24- (…), ‘No-fly zones: The legal position’ (BBC News) (19 February 2001). Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1175950.stm (Last visited 20 July 2019).
25- (…), ‘Syria air strikes: US and allies attack 'chemical weapons sites' (BBC News) (14 April 2018). Available at https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-4376225 (Last visited 21 July 2019).
6.3 UN Documents/Reports
1- General Assembly Resolution. Fifty-ninth session, UN Doc A/59/565 (2004) (24 December 2004).
2- Global Center for the Responsibility to Protect, Implementing the Responsibility to Protect: The 2009 General Assembly Debate: An Assessment (5, 6, August 2009).
3- ‘Human Rights Watch World Report on Syria’ (2019). https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2019/country-chapters/syria (Last visited 19 July 2019).
4- ‘International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty Responsibility to Protect: Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty’ VII (2001) [hereinafter ICISS Report]. http://responsibilitytoprotect.org/ICISS%20Report.pdf. (Last visited 18 July 2019).
5- ‘No preconditions’ accepted from Syrian parties, UN envoy says ahead of Geneva talks (UN News) (27 November 2017).
6- Parliamentary Hearing at the United Nations, New York, 20-21 (November 2008) Background Document: Session I.
7- ‘Report of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic’, UN Doc. A/HRC/37/72, 26 February–23 March 2018. https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/CoISyria/A-HRC-37-72_EN.pdf (Last visited 18 July 2019).
8- SC Res. 1674, (2008) UN Doc. S./RES/1674, 28 April 2008.
9- SC Res. 2042 (2012) SC/10609, 14 April 2012.
10- SC Res. 2043 (2012) SC/10618, 21 April 2012.
11- SC Res 2254 (2015), SC/12171, 18 December 2015.
12- SC Res. 917, (1994) UN SCOR, S/Res/917 (1994).
13- Security Council fails to adopt three resolutions on chemical weapons use in Syria (UN News) (10 April 2018).
14- ‘Security Council Fails to Adopt Draft Resolution on Syria as Russian Federation, China Veto Text Supporting Arab League’s Proposed Peace Plan’, SC/10536, 4 February 2012.
15- Security Council Approves ‘No-Fly Zone’ over Libya, Authorizing ‘All Necessary Measures’ to Protect Civilians, by Vote of 10 in Favor with 5 Abstentions, SC/10200, 17 March 2011.
16- ‘Security Council -Veto List’ http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/resguide/scact_veto_table_en.htm (Last visited 21 July 2019).
17- The Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility, 203, UN Doc. A/59/565, December 2004.
18- UN Secretary-General, Implementing the Responsibility to Protect. UN Doc A/63/677, 12 January 2009.
19- World Summit Outcome, GA Res. UN Doc A/RES/60/1 (2005), 24 October 2005.
6.4 International Cases
1- Military and Paramilitary Activities (Nicar. V. US), 1986 ICJ 14, 99-100 (June 27).





For example, Genocide in Rwanda in 1994 and genocide in Srebrenica in 1995.
See, V Lowe and A Tzanakopoulos, Humanitarian Intervention, (Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public
International Law OUP 2011).
See, Charter of the United Nations, 26 June 1945, 1 UNTS XVI art. 1, 2 para (3, 4).
Ibid, art. 2 para (7).
The Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility, 203, UN Doc. A/59/565, Dec 2004.
See, Military and Paramilitary Activities (Nicar. V. U.S.), 1986 ICJ 14, 99-100.
C Greenwood, ‘International Law and the Pre-Emptive Use of Force: Afghanistan, Al-Qaida, and Iraq’ (2003) 4 San Diego Int’l L.J. 7.
For more details, see, Michael N. Schmitt, ‘Preemptive Strategies in International Law’ (2003) 24 Mich.J.Int’l L. 513.
The term “Humanitarian Intervention” referred to forcible interventions designed to stem large-scale human rights crises, such as the crisis in Rwanda, Srebrenica and Kosovo. For more details: See, Ruth E. Gordon, ‘Intervention by the United Nations: Iraq, Somalia, and Haiti’ (1996) 31 Tex. Int’l L.J. 43.
Former Secretary- General Kofi Annan spoke of the sovereignty of the “Individual as well as of the State”. In addition, the concept also developed as “Responsibility”, by the Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide Francis Deng. For more details see, Parliamentary Hearing at The United Nations New York, 20-21 November (2008), Background Document: Session I.
See, UN Doc. S/RES/917 (1994).
M Marcus, ‘Humanitarian Intervention without Borders: Belligerent Occupation or Colonization?’ (2002) 25 Hous. J. Int’l L. 99.
See, D. Wolf, ‘Humanitarian Intervention’ (1998) 9 Mich. Y.B. Int’l Leg. Stud. 333, 368.
See, O. Schachter, ‘International Law in Theory and Practice’ (1991) Hereinafter Schachter International Law, 123-126.
See, Gordon, ‘Intervention by the United Nations: Iraq, Somalia, and Haiti’ n (11).
Ibid.
See, Ved P. Nada, ‘Tragedies in Somalia, Yugoslavia, Haiti, Rwanda and Liberia –Revisiting the Validity of Humanitarian Intervention Under International Law’, Part II (1998) 26 Denv. J. Int’l L. & Pol’y 827-831.
For more details see, Paul R. Williams, J Trevor Ulbrick and J. Worboys, ‘Preventing Mass Atrocity Crimes: The Responsibility to Protect and the Syria Crises’, (2012) 45 Case Western Reserve J. Int’l L. 479-480.
John J. Merriam, ‘Kosovo and the Law of Humanitarian Intervention’ (2001) 33 Case W. Res. J. Int’l L. 111.
See, Kofi Annan, ‘Two Concepts of Sovereignty, Economist’, (September 18, 1999) 49.
See, M. Halberstam, ‘The Legality of Humanitarian Intervention’, (1995) 3 Cardozo J. Int’l & Comp. L. 1, 2.
See, Merriam, ‘Kosovo and the Law of Humanitarian Intervention’ (n 24) 115.
See, Lowe and Tzanakopoulos, Humanitarian intervention, n (2).
See, International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty Responsibility to Protect: Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty VII (2001) [hereinafter ICISS Report]. http://responsibilitytoprotect.org/ICISS%20Report.pdf. (last visited 25 February 2019).
For more details see, C. Stahn, ‘Responsibility to Protect: Political Rhetoric or Emerging Legal Norm’, (2007) 101 The Am J Int’l L. 99-120.
See, UN Doc. A/59/565 (2004) paras 199–203.
UN Doc. A/RES/60/1 (2005) World Summit Outcome para 139, 24 October 2005. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/generalassembly/docs/globalcompact/A_RES_60_1.pdf (last visited 26 February 2019).
Ibid.
See, SC Res. 1674, UN Doc. S./RES/1674 (2008). (“Reaffirming the provisions of paragraphs 138 and 139 of the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document regarding the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing”).
For more details see, UN Secretary-General, Implementing the Responsibility to Protect. UN Doc. A/63/677, January 12 2009.
See, Global Center for the Responsibility to Protect, Implementing the Responsibility to Protect: The 2009 General Assembly Debate: An Assessment (5, 6, August 2009).
See, ICISS Report, n (29).
For more details see, C. Gray, ‘From the Unity to Polarization: International Law and the Use of Force against Iraq’ (2002) 13 EJIL 1-19.
See,’ UK Materials on International Law’, 69 British Year Book of International Law (1998) 592-593.
See, ‘Global Center for the Responsibility to Protect, Implementing the Responsibility to Protect’, n (34).
For more details see, Press Statement: GCIJ Files Article 15 Communication with ICC Prosecutor on Syria, The Guernica Group, London, Madrid & San Francisco (March 2019). https://www.guernicagroup.org/news/press-statement-gcij-files-article-15-communication-with-icc-prosecutor-on-syria?fbclid=IwAR0pGpploQfcueeOKi9qJa6fpL-X3sQoMIuouHyL8Ct0ON2oj2L50keR63A (last visited 28 February 2019).
For more details, see, Security Council Veto List, http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/resguide/scact_veto_table_en.htm (last visited 28 February 2019).
For more details see, M. Cherif Bassiouni, ‘Searching for Peace and Achieving Justice: The Need for Accountability’, (1996) 59 Law & Contemporary Problem 10-28. https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1013&context=lcp (last visited 28 February 2019).
See, Williams, Ulbrick and Worboys, ‘Preventing Mass Atrocity Crimes: The Responsibility to Protect and the Syria Crises’, n (23).
For more details see, Report of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic, UN Doc. A/HRC/37/72, 26 February–23 March 2018. https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/CoISyria/A-HRC-37-72_EN.pdf (last visited10 March 2019). See also, Human Rights Watch World Report on Syria 2019, https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2019/country-chapters/syria (last visited 2 March 2019). See also, Syria war: Lawyers submit first war crimes cases against Assad, BBC News (7 March 2019) available at https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-47483714 (last visited10 March 2019). Also, Press Statement: GCIJ Files Article 15 ‘Communication with ICC Prosecutor on Syria’, n (41).
See, Williams, Ulbrick and Worboys, ‘Preventing Mass Atrocity Crimes: The Responsibility to Protect and the Syria Crises’, n (23).
See, J Borger and B Inzaurralde, ‘West 'ignored Russian offer in 2012 to have Syria's Assad step aside', The Guardian (15 September 2015). available at https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/sep/15/west-ignored-russian-offer-in-2012-to-have-syrias-assad-step-aside (last visited 11 March 2019).
See, SC Res. 2042 (2012) SC/10609, 14 April 2012. https://www.un.org/press/en/2012/sc10609.doc.htm (last visited 12 March 2019).
See, SC Rec. 2043 (2012) SC/10618, 21 April 2012. https://www.un.org/press/en/2012/sc10618.doc.htm (last visited 12 March 2019).
See, ‘A brief history of peace attempts and failures in Syria’ (TRT World) (27 October 2018). available at https://www.trtworld.com/mea/a-brief-history-of-peace-attempts-and-failures-in-syria-21155/amp?fbclid=IwAR0hcI_9zRBL0SxbtPS4TakPKFF3FtQUM1KXY4v0drpdY1nZT4CGb0UQPnQ (last visited12 March 2019).
See,’ Syria: the Astana peace process’ (France 24) (5 September 2018). available at https://www.france24.com/en/20180905-syria-astana-peace-process (last visited 13 March 2019).
For more details, see, (JNS.org) ‘After eight years of civil war, the return of Syria to the Arab world’ (The Israel Press) (12 March 2019). available at https://theisraelpress.com/middle-east/after-eight-years-of-civil-war-the-return-of-syria-to-the-arab-world/ (last visited 13 March 2019).
See, Security Council Fails to Adopt Draft Resolution on Syria as Russian Federation, China Veto Text Supporting Arab League’s Proposed Peace Plan, SC/10536 (4 February 2012). https://www.un.org/press/en/2012/sc10536.doc.htm (last visited 14 March 2019).
For more details see, Security Council fails to adopt three resolutions on chemical weapons use in Syria (UN News) (10 April 2018). https://news.un.org/en/story/2018/04/1006991 (last visited14 March 2019).
See, Syria Emergency (UNHCR). (13 March 2019) https://www.unhcr.org/syria-emergency.html (last visited 14 March 2019).
For more details see, Gray, ‘From the Unity to Polarization: International Law and the Use of Force against Iraq’, n (38).
Ibid. For more details, see, ‘No-fly zones: The legal position’ (BBC News) (19 February 2001). available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1175950.stm (last visited15 March 2019).
See, ‘House of Commons Hansard’, Debates, (26 February 2001). https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200001/cmhansrd/vo010226/debtext/10226-20.htm (last visited15 March 2019). For more details see, Gray, ‘From the Unity to Polarization: International Law and the Use of Force against Iraq’, n (38).
See, Security Council Approves ‘No-Fly Zone’ over Libya, Authorizing ‘All Necessary Measures’ to Protect Civilians, by Vote of 10 in Favour with 5 Abstentions, SC/10200 (17 March 2011). https://www.un.org/press/en/2011/sc10200.doc.htm (last visited15 March 2019).
See, Williams, Ulbrick and Worboys, ‘Preventing Mass Atrocity Crimes: The Responsibility to Protect and the Syria Crises’, n (23).
For more details see, Syria air strikes: US and allies attack 'chemical weapons sites' (BBC News) (14 April 2018). available at https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-43762251 (last visited16 March 2019).
For more details see, Williams, Ulbrick and Worboys, ‘Preventing Mass Atrocity Crimes: The Responsibility to Protect and the Syria Crises’, n (23).
See, Z Cohen and K Liptak, ‘US, UK, and France launch Syria strikes targeting Assad's chemical weapons’ (CNN Politics) (14 April 2018). available at https://edition.cnn.com/2018/04/13/politics/trump-us-syria/index.html (last visited17 March 2019).
Williams, Ulbrick and Worboys, ‘Preventing Mass Atrocity Crimes: The Responsibility to Protect and the Syria Crises’, n (23).
For more details see, Human Rights Watch World Report on Syria (2019). https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2019/country-chapters/syria (last visited 21 June 2019).
For more details see, ‘ICISS Report’, n (29).
See, ‘No preconditions’ accepted from Syrian parties, UN envoy says ahead of Geneva talks (UN News) (27 November 2017). available at https://news.un.org/en/story/2017/11/637402-no-preconditions-accepted-syrian-parties-un-envoy-says-ahead-geneva-talks (last visited18 March 2019).
See, Human Rights Watch World Report on Syria (2019), n (60). See also, Security Council Resolution 2254 (2015), Endorsing Road Map for Peace Process in Syria, Setting Timetable for Talks, SC/12171 (18 December 2015). https://www.un.org/press/en/2015/sc12171.doc.htm (last visited18 March 2019).
Published
2019-08-27
How to Cite
ALMIZORY, Arsalan H.. Towards International Legitimization of the Responsibility to Protect’s Third Pillar. Academic Journal of Nawroz University, [S.l.], v. 8, n. 3, p. 50-60, aug. 2019. ISSN 2520-789X. Available at: <http://journals.nawroz.edu.krd/index.php/ajnu/article/view/396>. Date accessed: 20 sep. 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.25007/ajnu.v8n3a396.
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Articles