A Study of Engagement with Reference to Teachers’ Role in Engaging Learners in EFL Classes

  • Hussein A. Ahmed English Department, Nawroz University, Duhok, Kurdistan - Iraq
  • Hawar Sh. Mohammed Salih English Department, College Arts, University of Mosul, Mosul ,Iraq

Abstract

Learners’ engagement is widely acknowledged, theorized and researched as a salient source of impact on learners’ achievement at all educational levels. As such, it has been extensively probed so as to be better realized and soundly applied to the relevant domains. This research accounts broadly, in the first place, for the definition of engagement side by side with its nature and importance. It then reviews the four dominant perspectives of engagement, namely the behavioural perspective that highlights both learners’ behaviour and institutional practice; the psychological perspective that identifies engagement as learners’ psycho-social process; the socio-cultural perspective with focus on the role of context, and the holistic perspective that tackles engagement at a broad level. “Types of engagement”, viz intellectual, emotional, behavioural, physical, social, and cultural engagement, is a further point of departure that the current research endeavours to present and enlarge upon. Additionally, this research attends to teachers’ role in engaging learners by introducing a set of strategies/techniques used by teachers to engage learners in the ongoing tasks and activities. The research ends with a number of concluding points that are derived from the relevant presented relevant literature.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Almarado, J. T. (2018). “8 Ways to Increase the Engagement in Your Classroom” in Teaching Methods. Retrieved 19/5/2019
2. Askham, P.(2008). Context and identity: Exploring adult learners' experiences of higher education. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 32: 85–97.
3. Australian Council for Educational Research (2010). “Doing more for learning: Enhancing engagement and outcomes”. Australasian Student Engagement Report, Camberwell: ACER.
4. Balwant, Paul T. (2017). "The meaning of student engagement and disengagement in the classroom context: lessons from organisationalbehaviour". Journal of Further and Higher Education, (0): 1–13.
5. Bandura, A. (1997).Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York:Freeman and Co.
6. Barnett, R. and Coate, K. (2005). Engaging the curriculum in higher education.Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.
7. Bryson, C., Cooper, G. and Hardy, C. (2010). Reaching a common understanding of the meaning of student engagement. Paper presented at Society of Research into Higher Education Conference, December14–16, in Wales.
8. Christenson, S. L., and Anderson, A. R. (2002). Commentary: The centrality of the learning context for learners' academic enabler skills. School Psychology Review, 31(3), 378-393.
9. Coates, H. (2006). Student engagement in campus‐based and online education: university connections, London: Routledge.
10. …………. (2010).Development of the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement (AUSSE). Higher Education, 60: 1–17.
11. Connell, J. and Wellborn, J. (1991). Competence, autonomy, and relatedness: A motivational analysis of self-system processes. In M. R. Gunnar, and L. A. Sroufe (Eds.), Self process in development: Minnesota Symposium of Child Psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 29, 244-254.
12. Corno, L. and Mandinach, E.(2004). “What we have learned about student engagement in the past twenty years”. In Big theories revisited, McInerney, D. M. and Van Etten, S (eds.). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, 299–328..
13. Covington, M. V. (1998). The will to learn: A guide for motivating young people. Cambridge University Press.
14. Dall'alba, G. and Barnacle, R. (2007). An ontological turn for higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 32: 679–91. Retrieved 7/8/2019.
15. Ferlazzo, L. (2014). The Best Ways to Engage Students in Learning. Student Engagement. From Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 5/9/2019.
16. Flink, C., Boggiano, A. K., & Barrett, M. (1990). Controlling teaching strategies: Undermining children's self-determination and performance. Journal of personality and social psychology, 59(5), 916.
17. Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. & Paris, A. 2004. School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74: pp. 59–109.
18. Fredricks, J. A. (2014). Eight Myths of Student Disengagement: Creating Classrooms of Deep Learning. Los Angeles: Corwin.
19. Jimerson, S., Campos, E. & Greif, J.(2003). Toward an understanding of definitions and measures of school engagement and related terms. The California School Psychologist, 8:. 7–27.
20. Kahu, E. R. (2013). “Framing student engagement in higher education” in Studies in Higher Education, 13 (5), 758-773.
21. Krause, K. and Coates, H. (2008). Learners’ engagement in first‐year university. https:// doi.org/10.1080/02602930701698892, 493-505. Retrieved 23/6/2019.
22. Kuh, G.D. (2009). The national survey of student engagement: Conceptual and empirical foundations. New Directions for Institutional Research, 141: pp. 5–20.
23. Llorens, S., Schaufeli, W., Bakker, A. & Salanova, M. (2007). Does a positive gain spiral of resources, efficacy beliefs and engagement exist?. Computers in Human Behavior, 23: 825–41.
24. Martin, A. J. (2006). The relationship between teachers’ perceptions of student motivation and engagement and teachers’ enjoyment of and confidence in teaching. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 34(1), 73-93.
25. Newmann, F. (1992).Student Engagement and Achievement in American Secondary Schools. Teachers College Press. 2–3.
26. Newmann, F. M., Wehlage, G. G. & Lamborn, S.(1992). “The significance and sources of student engagement”. In Student engagement and achievement in American secondary schools, F.M. Newmann (ed.), New York: Teachers College Press, 11–39.
27. Nystrand, M. & Gamoran, A. (1991). Instructional discourse, student engagement, and literature achievement. Research in the Teaching of English, 25: 261–90.
28. Riggs, E. G. & Gholar, C. R. (2009). Strategies that promote student engagement, 2, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
29. Rogers, C. (1969). Freedom to learn: A view of what education might become. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
30. Skinner, E. A., and Belmont, M. J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 571–581.
31. Strong, R. , Silver, H. and Robinson, A. (1995) "What do learners want (and what really motivates them)?" Educational Leadership, 25.
32. Weimer, M. (2012). 10 Ways to Promote Student Engagement. In Faculty Focus. Retrieved 22/8/2019.
33. Yorke, M. (2000). The quality of the student experience: What can institutions learn from data relating to non-completion?. Quality in Higher Education, 6: 61–75.
34. Young, S. (2015). 14 Activities That Increase Student Engagement During Reading Instruction. Reading Horizons. Retrieved 15/9/2019.
35. Zepke, N. and Leach, L. (2010). Beyond hard outcomes: ‘soft 'outcomes and engagement as student success. Teaching in Higher Education, 15: 661–73.
9. Websites
1. http://www.greatschoolspartnership.org.Retrieved 19/5/2019.
2. Beyond The Conventional Definition: What Student Engagement Actually Is. Retrieved 12/7/2019.
3. http://www.ehow.com. Retrieved 26/6/2019
4. http://www.scientificlanguage.com/esp/classroom-management.pdf. Retrieved 15/8/2019
5. https://www.k12.gov.sk.ca/docs/francais/frcore/sec/inst1.html. Retrieved 26/6/2019
6. www.bryan-harris.com. Retrieved 1/5/2019.
7. Twitter at@DrDebbieSilver. Retrieved 26/4/2
Published
2020-03-26
How to Cite
AHMED, Hussein A.; MOHAMMED SALIH, Hawar Sh.. A Study of Engagement with Reference to Teachers’ Role in Engaging Learners in EFL Classes. Academic Journal of Nawroz University, [S.l.], v. 9, n. 1, p. 245-257, mar. 2020. ISSN 2520-789X. Available at: <http://journals.nawroz.edu.krd/index.php/ajnu/article/view/601>. Date accessed: 03 apr. 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.25007/ajnu.v9n1a601.
Section
Articles