The “Linguistic Imperialism” Aspect of English as a Foreign Language from Educated Iraqis’ Viewpoint
A language is said to be dominating and prevalent when the military and economic forces of a powerful country make it either control or endanger the language(s) of less power countries. As such, the heavily supported spread of English language by UK and USA and duly the importance granted to the language as a lingua franca have made English acquire the label of global linguistic imperialism (LI). This research attempts to shed light on the LI aspect of English as a foreign language in Iraq from educated Iraqis’ viewpoint. It further aims to answer the following prime question: Has English language acquired a “LI” aspect in Iraq after 2003; the date of American occupation, in the light of the evasive and dominant nature of its use in the different domains of Iraqis’ life? Accordingly, a questionnaire of 25 items was first presented to a panel of jurors to approve its face and content validity. It was then administered to a sample of 200 educated Iraqis chosen randomly from different academic and social sectors to test its reliability. The results show that educated Iraqis opined the existence of a LI aspect of English in Iraq after 2003. Furthermore, their views did not vary with regard to the wide use of English in the different domains of the Iraqi society.
Ahmed, H.A. (1989). The Role of Attitudes and Motivations in Teaching and Learning Foreign Language: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation into the Teaching and Learning of English in Iraqi Preparatory Schools. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Department of Education. University of Stirling.
Al-Chalabi, S.A. (1976). Teaching English as a Foreign Language in Iraq with Emphasis on the in - Service Training of Secondary Schools Teachers of English. Baghdad: Dar Al-Jahidh Press.
Al-Jarf, R.S. (2008). The Power of the English Language in the Past, Present and Future. Saudi Arabia: King Saud University: College of Languages and Translation.
Alqaisi, K. (2005). American Economic Decisions Await Application in Iraq. Al-Hayat Newspaper, No. 15361.
Crystal, D. (1997). English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Graddol, D. (1997). The Future of English Language. London: The English Company Ltd.
Lin, Y.H. (2013), Critical Perspective on Global English: A Study of their Implications. Available from: http://www.benz.nchu.edu.tw/~intergrams/intergrams/132/132-lhy.pdf.
Park, H. (2008). Linguistic imperialism and the English-learning z in Korea: A case analysis of weekend Korean schools in the U.S. By the Academy of Korean Studies. The Review of Korean Studies, 11(2), 117-137.
Penny, W.K. (2002), Linguistic Imperialism: The Role of English as an International Language. Vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press.p1-24.
Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Salih, A.M. (2005). The influence of invasion on language change through borrowing words. Tikrit University Journal for Humanities, 13(2), 82-91.
Zebari, A. (2013), American University Graduates Students from Across Iraq. Available from: http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/06/iraqi-university-unites-different-groups.html.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
AJNU is committed to protecting the privacy of the users of this journal website. The names, personal particulars and e-mail addresses entered in this website will be used only for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available to third parties without the user's permission or due process. Users consent to receive communication from the AJNU for the stated purposes of the journal. Queries with regard to privacy may be directed to email@example.com.