Molecular Classification of the Earthworm Aporrectodea trapezoids and the Effect of Sodium Nitroprusside and Norepinephrine on the Contractility of Crop and Gizzard Smooth Muscle


  • Omar A.M. Al-Habib جامعة نوروز
  • Nazik M.S. Othman Dept. of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zakho, Zakho, Kurdistan Region, Iraq



Keywords: Molecular Classification, Earthworm, Aporrectodea trapezoids. SNP, NE Crop-Gizzard, Smooth Muscle Cells


Background: Earthworms are considered as one of the ecologically important invertebrates with highly cryptic genetic diversity. Since the morphological methods of classification are unprecise, it is necessary to classify the species depending on molecular bases using PCR techniques. In addition, studying the effect of some agonists such as Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and Norepinephrine (NE) on the smooth muscle of earthworm is yet poorly studied.


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How to Cite

A.M. Al-Habib, O., & M.S. Othman, N. (2021). Molecular Classification of the Earthworm Aporrectodea trapezoids and the Effect of Sodium Nitroprusside and Norepinephrine on the Contractility of Crop and Gizzard Smooth Muscle. Academic Journal of Nawroz University, 10(2), 220–226.