The Civil War in Costa Rica (March 12 - April 19, 1948)


  • Ali Salih Hamdan Department of History, Faculty of Humanities / University of Dohuk, Kurdistan Region of Iraq



Costa Rica lived through the grinding conditions of the civil war in 1948, which left thousands of innocent victims who participated in that war on behalf of one of the parties, and which resulted from the intensification of the conflict between the two conflicting parties, after the supporters of the candidate Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia burned a number of the main electoral boxes, which pushed the opposition To disobedience and authority, direct responsibility for rigging the election result, which was won by the opposition candidate Utilio Ulate.

 Their forces gathered behind the exiled military leader, José Figueres, who was able to seize power by armed force, and the situation continued as it was, until the latter abdicated power to the candidate who won the elections eighteen months after the end of the elections. The war, and thus the Costa Ricans were able to shake off the bloody effects of the war, and start a new historical period.


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الوثائق المنشورة:
- دستور كوستاريكا الصادر عام 1949 شاملا تعديلاته حتى عام 2011، المؤسسة الدولية للديمقراطية والانتخابات، 2021.
- ملخصات الأحكام والفتاوى والأوامر الصادرة عن محكمة العدل الدول، على الرابط:
- المؤسسة الدولية للديمقراطية والانتخابات، 2021، على الرابط:
الكتب باللغة العربية:
- د. حسن طه نجم، امريكا اللاتينية –ارضا وسكانا دراسة جغرافية اقليمية، (الكويت، 1990).
- لارويت سيجورنه، امريكا اللاتينية الثقافات القديمة ما قبل الكولومبية، ت: صالح علماني، (القاهرة، 2003).
المقالات باللغة الانكليزية:
- David Díaz Arias, Battle of memories in Costa Rica: inventions, testimonies, and violence during the civil war of 1948.
- Calderón Guardia Rafael Ángel .
- Costa rican revolution of 1948
- Cortés Castro, León.
- Costa Rica Military.
- Guías Costa Rica Información General e Historica.
- Iván Molina Jiménez The Costa Rican Civil War of 1948: Seventy Years Later.
-- Jan Ullrich, Costa Rican Civil War and Uprising, 1948.
- Javi the Frog, The 44-day civil war of 1948,
- Josué Jiménez Álvarez, José David Ramírez, Roldán Reforms, War and Social Struggle in Costa Rica. 1948.
- José Figueres Ferrer president of Costa Rica.
- The History of Costa Rica .
- The democracy in Costa Rica part 1 (Civil war 1948).



How to Cite

Salih Hamdan, A. (2022). The Civil War in Costa Rica (March 12 - April 19, 1948). Academic Journal of Nawroz University, 11(2), 146–154.