Landfill Site Selection Using GIS and (AHP): Case Study of Ranya City


  • Sarkar Hamad Khdir Department of Geography, Faculty of Education, Koya University, Erbil, Kurdistan-IRAQ
  • Kameran Taheer Saeed Department of Geography, Faculty of Education, Koya University, Erbil, Kurdistan-IRAQ



Ranya City is located in North West of Sulaymaniyah Governorate, Iraq. It has an area of (76.7) km2. In 2018, it was home for (102,571) inhabitants. Presently, there are no landfills in the study area that fulfills necessary environmental requirements; thus, informal and unsuitable solid waste dumping is negatively impacting human health and the environment. Land fill site selection can be a difficult task as it is impacted by different factors and regulations. This study is an attempt to identify and evaluate suitable landfill locations in the study area using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographic Information System (GIS). Ten criteria are used in this process which includes: groundwater depth, surface water, residential areas, Geological formations, slope, elevation, soil type, land use, roads and archeological sites. AHP was used to determine the weight for each criteria using pairwise comparison matrix. Three classes of suitability index were found: unsuitable (98.47%), moderately suitable (0.003%) and suitable (1.52%) of the study area. Three suitable landfill sites were identified as candidate sites that meet the requirements with an area of (0.29) km2, (0.12) km2 and (0.098) km2 respectively.


Download data is not yet available.


TÜdeş, Ş., & Kumlu, K. B. Y. (2017, October). Solid waste landfill site selection in the sense of environment sensitive sustainable urbanization: Izmir, Turkey case. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 245, No. 8, p. 82063).

Mian, M. M., Zeng, X., Nasry, A. A. N. B., & Al-Hamadani, S. M. (2017). Municipal solid waste management in China: a comparative analysis. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 19(3), 1127-1135.

Chabuk, A., Al-Ansari, N., Hussain, H. M., Knutsson, S., & Pusch, R. (2016). Landfill site selection using geographic information system and analytical hierarchy process: A case study Al-Hillah Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq. Waste Management & Research, 34(5), 427-437.

Al-Ansari, N., Al-Hanbali, A., & Knutsson, S. (2012). Locating solid waste landfills in Mafraq City, Jordan. Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research, 2(1), 40-51.

Moeinaddini, M., Khorasani, N., Danehkar, A., & Darvishsefat, A. A. (2010). Siting MSW landfill using weighted linear combination and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) methodology in GIS environment (case study: Karaj). Waste management, 30(5), 912-920.

Yesilnacar, M. I., & Cetin, H. (2008). An environmental geomorphologic approach to site selection for hazardous wastes. Environmental Geology, 55(8), 1659-1671.

Siddiqui, M. Z., Everett, J. W., & Vieux, B. E. (1996). Landfill siting using geographic information systems: a demonstration. Journal of environmental engineering, 122(6), 515-523.

Ersoy, H., & Bulut, F. (2009). Spatial and multi-criteria decision analysis-based methodology for landfill site selection in growing urban regions. Waste Management & Research, 27(5), 489-500.

Abdullah, T. O., Ali, S. S., Al-Ansari, N. A., & Knutsson, S. (2018). Possibility of Groundwater Pollution in Halabja Saidsadiq Hydrogeological Basin, Iraq Using Modified DRASTIC Model Based on AHP and Tritium Isotopes. Geosciences, 8(7), 236.

Li, Z. W., Zeng, G. M., Zhang, H., Yang, B., & Jiao, S. (2007). The integrated eco-environment assessment of the red soil hilly region based on GIS—a case study in Changsha City, China. Ecological modelling, 202(3-4), 540-546.

Thapa, R. B., & Murayama, Y. (2008). Land evaluation for peri-urban agriculture using analytical hierarchical process and geographic information system techniques: A case study of Hanoi. Land use policy, 25(2), 225-239.

Vahidnia, M. H., Alesheikh, A. A., & Alimohammadi, A. (2009). Hospital site selection using fuzzy AHP and its derivatives. Journal of environmental management, 90(10), 3048-3056.

Sharifi, M., Hadidi, M., Vessali, E., Mosstafakhani, P., Taheri, K., Shahoie, S., & Khodamoradpour, M. (2009). Integrating multi-criteria decision analysis for a GIS-based hazardous waste landfill sitting in Kurdistan Province, western Iran. Waste management, 29(10), 2740-2758.

Effat, H. A., & Hegazy, M. N. (2012). Mapping potential landfill sites for North Sinai cities using spatial multicriteria evaluation. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science, 15(2), 125-133.

Ramjeawon, T., & Beerachee, B. (2008). Site selection of sanitary landfills on the small island of Mauritius using the analytical hierarchy process multi-criteria method. Waste management & research, 26(5), 439-447.

Yesilnacar, M. I., Süzen, M. L., Kaya, B. Ş., & Doyuran, V. (2012). Municipal solid waste landfill site selection for the city of Şanliurfa-Turkey: an example using MCDA integrated with GIS. International Journal of Digital Earth, 5(2), 147-164.

Alavi, N., Goudarzi, G., Babaei, A. A., Jaafarzadeh, N., & Hosseinzadeh, M. (2013). Municipal solid waste landfill site selection with geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process: a case study in Mahshahr County, Iran. Waste Management & Research, 31(1), 98-105.

amdar, I., Ali, S., Bennui, A., Techato, K., & Jutidamrongphan, W. (2019). Municipal solid waste landfill siting using an integrated GIS-AHP approach: A case study from Songkhla, Thailand. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 149, 220-235.

Uyan, M. (2014). MSW landfill site selection by combining AHP with GIS for Konya, Turkey. Environmental earth sciences, 71(4), 1629-1639.

Vasiljević, T. Z., Srdjević, Z., Bajčetić, R., & Miloradov, M. V. (2012). GIS and the analytic hierarchy process for regional landfill site selection in transitional countries: a case study from Serbia. Environmental management, 49(2), 445-458.

Isalou, A. A., Zamani, V., Shahmoradi, B., & Alizadeh, H. (2013). Landfill site selection using integrated fuzzy logic and analytic network process (F-ANP). Environmental Earth Sciences, 68(6), 1745-1755.

Afzali, A., Sabri, S., Rashid, M., Samani, J. M. V., & Ludin, A. N. M. (2014). Inter-municipal landfill site selection using analytic network process. Water resources management, 28(8), 2179-2194.

Delgado, O. B., Mendoza, M., Granados, E. L., & Geneletti, D. (2008). Analysis of land suitability for the siting of inter-municipal landfills in the Cuitzeo Lake Basin, Mexico. Waste management, 28(7), 1137-1146.

Alkaradaghi, K., Ali, S. S., Al-Ansari, N., Laue, J., & Chabuk, A. (2019). Landfill site selection using MCDM methods and GIS in the sulaimaniyah governorate, Iraq. Sustainability, 11(17), 4530.

Chabuk, A., Al-Ansari, N., Hussain, H. M., Knutsson, S., Pusch, R., & Laue, J. (2017). Combining GIS applications and method of multi-criteria decision-making (AHP) for landfill siting in Al-Hashimiyah Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq. Sustainability, 9(11), 1932.

Alkaradaghi, K., Ali, S. S., Al-Ansari, N., & Laue, J. (2012). Landfill Site Selection Using GIS andMulti-Criteria Decision-Making AHP and SAW Methods: A Case Study in SulaimaniyahGovernorate, Iraq: Landfill Site Selection Using GIS andMulti-Criteria Decision-Making AHP and SAW Methods: A Case Study in SulaimaniyahGovernorate, Iraq. Engineerring, 4, 254-268.

Rahmat, Z. G., Niri, M. V., Alavi, N., Goudarzi, G., Babaei, A. A., Baboli, Z., & Hosseinzadeh, M. (2017). Landfill site selection using GIS and AHP: a case study: Behbahan, Iran. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 21(1), 111-118.

Maiti, S. K., De, S., Hazra, T., Debsarkar, A., & Dutta, A. (2016). Characterization of leachate and its impact on surface and groundwater quality of a closed dumpsite–a case study at Dhapa, Kolkata, India. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 35, 391-399.

Kharat, M. G., Kamble, S. J., Raut, R. D., & Kamble, S. S. (2016). Identification and evaluation of landfill site selection criteria using a hybrid Fuzzy Delphi, Fuzzy AHP and DEMATEL based approach. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 2(2), 98.

Demesouka, O. E., Vavatsikos, A. P., & Anagnostopoulos, K. P. (2014). GIS-based multicriteria municipal solid waste landfill suitability analysis: A review of the methodologies performed and criteria implemented. Waste Management & Research, 32(4), 270-296.

Pasalari, H., Nodehi, R. N., Mahvi, A. H., Yaghmaeian, K., & Charrahi, Z. (2019). Landfill site selection using a hybrid system of AHP-Fuzzy in GIS environment: A case study in Shiraz city, Iran. MethodsX, 6, 1454-1466.

Chang, N. B., Parvathinathan, G., & Breeden, J. B. (2008). Combining GIS with fuzzy multicriteria decision-making for landfill siting in a fast-growing urban region. Journal of environmental management, 87(1), 139-153.

Eskandari, M., Homaee, M., & Mahmodi, S. (2012). An integrated multi criteria approach for landfill siting in a conflicting environmental, economical and socio-cultural area. Waste Management, 32(8), 1528-1538.

Yildirim, V. (2012). Application of raster-based GIS techniques in the siting of landfills in Trabzon Province, Turkey: a case study. Waste Management & Research, 30(9), 949-960.

Nas, B., Cay, T., Iscan, F., & Berktay, A. (2010). Selection of MSW landfill site for Konya, Turkey using GIS and multi-criteria evaluation. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 160(1-4), 491.

Şener, B., Süzen, M. L., & Doyuran, V. (2006). Landfill site selection by using geographic information systems. Environmental geology, 49(3), 376-388.

Charnpratheep, K., Zhou, Q., & Garner, B. (1997). Preliminary landfill site screening using fuzzy geographical information systems. Waste management & research, 15(2), 197-215.

Şener, Ş., Sener, E., & Karagüzel, R. (2011). Solid waste disposal site selection with GIS and AHP methodology: a case study in Senirkent–Uluborlu (Isparta) Basin, Turkey. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 173(1-4), 533-554.

Baiocchi, V., Lelo, K., Polettini, A., & Pomi, R. (2014). Land suitability for waste disposal in metropolitan areas. Waste management & research, 32(8), 707-716.

Buringh, P. (1960). Soils and soil conditions in Iraq. Ministry of agriculture.

Kurdistan Regional Government, Ministry of Municipality and Tourism.,” Ranya Muncipality, internal records, 2018.

Feizizadeh, B., Jankowski, P., & Blaschke, T. (2014). A GIS based spatially-explicit sensitivity and uncertainty analysis approach for multi-criteria decision analysis. Computers & geosciences, 64, 81-95.

Mohd, Z. H., & Ujang, U. (2016). Integrating multiple criteria evaluation and GIS in ecotourism: a review. The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 42, 351.

á Saaty, T. L. (1980). The Analytic Hierarchy Process: Planning, Priority Setting. Resource Allocation.

Ghorbanzadeh, O., Pourmoradian, S., Blaschke, T., & Feizizadeh, B. (2019). Mapping potential nature-based tourism areas by applying GIS-decision making systems in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Journal of Ecotourism, 18(3), 261-283.



How to Cite

Hamad Khdir, S., & Taheer Saeed, K. . (2021). Landfill Site Selection Using GIS and (AHP): Case Study of Ranya City. Academic Journal of Nawroz University, 10(4), 39–49.