Effect of Biofertilizer, Plant Growth Activator, and Plant Density on Growth of Garlic (Allium sativum L.)


  • Alaa M. Ahmed Department of Horticulture, Duhok Polytechnic University Kurdistan Region – F.R. Iraq
  • Taha Z. Sarhan Department of Horticulture, Duhok Polytechnic University Kurdistan Region – F.R. Iraq




The use of organic fertilizers instead of chemical (inorganic) ones with proper cultural practices is proposed to have a great impact on crop outgrowth and yield. A field experiment was carried out in the vegetable research field at the protected cultivation department, Zakho technical institute, Dohuk polytechnic University, Iraq to inspect the impact of azotobacter, plant growth activator with three levels (0 ml. L-1, 1 ml. L-1, and 2 ml. L-1) and three plant spacing (5 cm, 10 cm, and 15 cm) on growth and leaf mineral composition of local garlic. The treatments were organized in a split-split randomized complete block design (split- split RCBD) with three replicates. The obtained results demonstrated that the single treatment of azotobacter surpassed activator and plant density and significantly ameliorated all vegetation parameters [plant height (cm), chlorophyll content (SPAD), leaf length and width (cm), number of leaves, neck diameter (cm), and dry matter percentage of vegetative growth (%)] as well as improving leaf mineral composition of N, P, and K as compared to control. Single effect of plant spacing at (15 cm) importantly improved leaf length, dry matter percentage of vegetative growth and the leaf potassium (K) content. The individual dose (ml. L-1) of growth activator significantly enhanced chlorophyll content, neck diameter, dry matter percentage of vegetative growth and leaf content of phosphorus (P). Furthermore, the dual and triple combinations of all factors significantly increased vegetative and leaf mineral parameters of local garlic. The azotobacter either individually or along with growth activator and plant density is recommended for maximum growth of local garlic.


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How to Cite

M. Ahmed, A. ., & Z. Sarhan, T. . (2024). Effect of Biofertilizer, Plant Growth Activator, and Plant Density on Growth of Garlic (Allium sativum L.). Academic Journal of Nawroz University, 13(2), 683–695. https://doi.org/10.25007/ajnu.v13n2a1551