A Study of Kurdish EFL University Learners’ Comprehension of Implicatures
This study investigates the extent of the comprehension of implicatures by Kurdish EFL learners at the university level. For this purpose, the Implicature Comprehension Instrument (ICI) was the sole instrument used for the data collection using a 14-item administered to 43 respondents whose responses were calculated and analyzed quantitatively and descriptively. The data analysis reveals that a noticeable number of the participants comprehended different types of implicatures to different levels for each category in comprehending implicatures. The results also show no statistically significant difference between the participants’ comprehension of implicature according to gender. Finally, the participants also showed a moderately high level of implicature comprehension, which may benefit students, instructors, and curricula designers.
Bada, E. (2010). Repetitions as vocalized fillers and self-repairs in English and French interlanguages. Journal of Pragmatics. Vol. 42(6), 1680-1688.
Bardovi-Harlig, K. (1996). Pragmatics and language teaching: Bringing pragmatics and pedagogy together. In L. Bouton (Ed.), Pragmatics and language learning (pp. 21-39). Urbana- Champaign: the University of Illinois, Division of English as an International Language.
--------------------. (2010). Exploring the pragmatics of interlanguage pragmatics: Definition by design. In Pragmatics across languages and cultures (pp. 219-260). De Gruyter Mouton.
Bouton, L.F. (1988). A cross-cultural study of the ability to interpret implicatures in English. World Englishes, 17(2), 183-96.
Brown, P. & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., and Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education. (6th ed.) London: Routledge.
Cummings, L. (2005). Pragmatics: A multidisciplinary perspective. New York: Routledge.
Economidou-Kogetsidis, M. (2009). Interlanguage request modification: The use of lexical/phrasal downgrades and mitigating supportive moves. Multilingual-Journal of Cross-Cultural and Interlanguage Communication. Vol. 28(1), 79-112.
Ergüven, T. (2001). Interpreting implicatures: A study on upper-intermediate level EFL students. Yayınlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi, Ortadoğu Teknik Üniversitesi, Ankara.
Fraenkel, J, Norman E.W., and Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill. 111.
Grice, H. P. (1975). Logic and Conversation. In P. Cole (Ed.), Syntax and Semantics (pp. 411-58). New York: Academic Press.
Grice, P. (1989). Studies in the Way of Words. Harvard University Press.
Hymes, D. (1972). On Communicative Competence. In JB Pride and J. Holmes (eds.), Sociolinguistics. Baltimore: Penguin.269- 293.
Ishihara, N. & Cohen, A. D. (2014). Teaching and Learning Pragmatics: Where Language and Culture Meet. New York: Routledge.
Kasper, G. (1989). Interactive procedures in interlanguage discourse. In W. Olesky (Ed.), Contrastive pragmatics (pp. 189-229). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Kasper, G., & Rose, K. R. (2001). Pragmatics in language teaching. In K. R. Rose & G. Kasper (Eds.), Pragmatics in language teaching (pp. 1-9). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Lee, C. (2011). Strategy and linguistic preference of requests by Cantonese learners of English: An interlanguage and cross-cultural comparison. Multilingual. Vol. 30, 99-129.
Lee, J. S. (2002). Interpreting conversational implicatures: A study of Korean learners of English. Korea TESOL Journal. Vol. 5 Fall/Winter, 1-25.
Levinson, S.C. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Li, R., Rozina, R. & Sazalie, A. (2015). An investigation into Chinese EFL learners’ pragmatic competence. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies. Vol. 15(2), 101-118.
Nguyen, T. T. M. (2008). Criticizing in an L2: Pragmatic strategies used by Vietnamese EFL learners. Intercultural Pragmatic. Vol. 5(1), 41-66.
Potts, C. (2014). Pressuposition and Implicature. Retrieved from https://web.stanford.edu/~cgpotts/ manuscripts/potts-blackwellsemantics.pdf.
Rızaoğlu, F. & Yavuz, M.A. (2007). English Language Learners’ Comprehension and Production of Implicatures. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 32(4): 817-837.
Taghizadeh, R. (2017). Pragmatic Competence in the Target Language: A Study of Iranian Learners of English. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. University Of Salford, Manchester, UK.
Taguchi, N. (2007). Development of speed and accuracy in pragmatic comprehension in English as a foreign language. TESOL Quarterly, 42, 313-338.
Thomas, J. (1995). Meaning in Interaction: An Introduction to Pragmatics. London: Longman.
. (1983). Cross-cultural pragmatic failure. Applied linguistics, 4(2), 91-112.
Yates, L., & Major, G. (2015). “Quick-chatting," "smart dogs," and how to "say without saying": Small talk and pragmatic learning in the community. System, 48, 141-152.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Academic Journal of Nawroz University
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright
The use of a Creative Commons License enables authors/editors to retain copyright to their work. Publications can be reused and redistributed as long as the original author is correctly attributed.
- The researcher(s), whether a single or joint research paper, must sell and transfer to the publisher (the Academic Journal of Nawroz University) through all the duration of the publication which starts from the date of entering this Agreement into force, the exclusive rights of the research paper/article. These rights include the translation, reuse of papers/articles, transmit or distribute, or use the material or parts(s) contained therein to be published in scientific, academic, technical, professional journals or any other periodicals including any other works derived from them, all over the world, in English and Arabic, whether in print or in electronic edition of such journals and periodicals in all types of media or formats now or that may exist in the future. Rights also include giving license (or granting permission) to a third party to use the materials and any other works derived from them and publish them in such journals and periodicals all over the world. Transfer right under this Agreement includes the right to modify such materials to be used with computer systems and software, or to reproduce or publish it in e-formats and also to incorporate them into retrieval systems.
- Reproduction, reference, transmission, distribution or any other use of the content, or any parts of the subjects included in that content in any manner permitted by this Agreement, must be accompanied by mentioning the source which is (the Academic Journal of Nawroz University) and the publisher in addition to the title of the article, the name of the author (or co-authors), journal’s name, volume or issue, publisher's copyright, and publication year.
- The Academic Journal of Nawroz University reserves all rights to publish research papers/articles issued under a “Creative Commons License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction of the paper/article by any means, provided that the original work is correctly cited.
- Reservation of Rights
The researcher(s) preserves all intellectual property rights (except for the one transferred to the publisher under this Agreement).
- Researcher’s guarantee
The researcher(s) hereby guarantees that the content of the paper/article is original. It has been submitted only to the Academic Journal of Nawroz University and has not been previously published by any other party.
In the event that the paper/article is written jointly with other researchers, the researcher guarantees that he/she has informed the other co-authors about the terms of this agreement, as well as obtaining their signature or written permission to sign on their behalf.
The author further guarantees:
- The research paper/article does not contain any defamatory statements or illegal comments.
- The research paper/article does not violate other's rights (including but not limited to copyright, patent, and trademark rights).
This research paper/article does not contain any facts or instructions that could cause damages or harm to others, and publishing it does not lead to disclosure of any confidential information.