The Effect of New Technology on the Concept of “Direct Participation in Hostilities” in International Humanitarian Law


  • Aram Nabee Mohammed Wasani Law department, college of humanity, Raparin University
  • Idrees Qadir Rasul Law Department, Faculty of Law, Political Science and Management, Soran University
  • Awara Hussein Ahmed Ali Law Department, College of Law, University of Halabja



Hostilities, Direct Participation, Additional Protocols, Combatants, Armed Conflict, New Technology.



This Research is about participation in hostilities particular civilian participation in international and non-international armed conflict. According to the International Humanitarian Law when civilians directly participate in hostilities, they loss their protection right. 

Over recent decades, because of the continued advancement of technology, the nature of warfare has changed significantly, the current war fronts are something different from the earlier battle field. Modernization of the world differentiates the strategies of wars, methods of wars and planning of achieving the military benefits. Therefore, the earlier laws do not fit with the current war front.

It is not true to say that only Direct Participation in Hostilities (DPH) can respond adequately to current forms of participation in conflicts because nowadays there are various types of participation in wars that may not fall within the concept of direct participation such as indirect participation in hostilities. Consequently, if applied the condition of direct participation to regard a person as combatant then what will be position of people who do not directly take part such as service men.

To answer the research questions this academic paper will explains the notion of DPH. Also, this research focuses on the elements of the DPH and then the effect of new technology on the concept of DPH in International Humanitarian Law will be argued.


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How to Cite

Mohammed , A. ., Rasul, I. ., & Ahmed, A. (2023). The Effect of New Technology on the Concept of “Direct Participation in Hostilities” in International Humanitarian Law. Academic Journal of Nawroz University, 1(1).