Assessment of Waste Generation rate of Medical Hazardous in Duhok Governorate (Proposal of alternative disposal and management methods)


  • Maha M. AL-Ghabban College of Engineering, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region - Iraq
  • Nashwan Sh. Mizzouri College of Engineering, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region - Iraq
  • Fadhil R. Mahmood College of Engineering, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region - Iraq
  • Hussein H. Hassan College of Engineering, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region - Iraq
  • Kadhim I. Abdulrahman College of Engineering, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region - Iraq



Medical Hazardous Waste, Waste Management, Waste Generation, Landfills, recycling


The developments and improvement of the public and the private healthcare sector in the recent years in Duhok governorate considered as the main factor for increasing the production rate of per capita patient generation of hazardous waste (Bio-Medical Waste). Another important factor contributes in hazardous waste volume is the increase in health services and public education. Generation of waste caused direct impacts on human health and environment through the pollution of soil, water and air. The present study was carry out to assess the sources and the data quantities of hazardous wastes, analysis of these collected data is achieved by using of GIS Application. In 2014, it was found that 253.143 tons of hazardous waste were produced in Duhok. About 30% of the waste is not being sorted from the municipal solid waste, i.e. disposed directly to dumps or landfills. Inadequate disposal of hazardous waste can related to contamination of surface and ground water supplies, and risk impacts on communities and their environment. In addition the aim of this assessing is focused on the importance of hazardous waste management and to develop a proposal for treatment and disposal management methods in compliance with the international environmental regulations.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Abdulla, F., Qdais, H. A., & Rabi, A. (2008). Site investigation on medical waste management practices in northern Jordan. Waste Management, 28(2), 450-458.
2. Almuneef, M., & Memish, Z. A. (2003). Effective medical waste management: it can be done. American journal of infection control, 31(3), 188-192
3. Al-Zahrani, M. ,S. A. (2000). Health care risk waste in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal, Vol. 21 (3) pp 245-250.
4. Baveja, G., Muralidhar, S., & Aggarwal, P. (2000). Hospital waste management–an overview. Hospital today, 5(9), 485-486.

5. Bdour, A., Altrabsheh, B., Hadadin, N., & Al-Shareif, M. (2007). Assessment of medical wastes management practice: A case study of the northern part of Jordan. Waste Management, 27(6), 746-759.
6. Bennett, G. (1992). Medical waste management and disposal: by US Environmental Protection Agency, VJ Landrum, RG Barton, R. Neulicht, M. Turner, D. Wallace and S. Smith, published by Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, NJ, 1991, ISBN 0-8155-1264-3, 541 pp., $82.00: Elsevier
7. Chartier, Y. (2014). Safe management of wastes from health-care activities: World Health Organization.
8. Chung, S.-s., & Lo, C. W. (2003). Evaluating sustainability in waste management: the case of construction and demolition, chemical and clinical wastes in Hong Kong. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 37(2), 119-145.
9. Drews, F.A., Pasupathi, M., & Strayer, D.L. (2008). Passenger and cell phone conversations in simulated driving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 14, 392-400. doi: 10.1037/a0013119
10. Diaz et al, L. S. (2005). Alternatives for the tretment and disposal of healthcare. waste managemnt, 626-637.
11. EPA, s. 4. (2003). Dioxin: Conitinuing EPA Efforts to Reduce the Pubibc Exposure to Dioxin Risks. Washington, DC: United States Office of Research Environmental Protection and Development.
12. Fakher, J. A. (2008). Healthcare waste mangment in Jordan King Abdullah University hospital case syudy. Umm Al-Quraa, J.Sci. Med. Eng., Vol.20 No.1, pp.61-77.
13. Fatima, M. K. (2016). Evaluation of Medical solid wastes managment in some hospitals in Najaf city/Iraq. Kufa Journal of engineering, Vol. 7, No. 3, P.P. 38-54.
14. Jang, Y.-C., Lee, C., Yoon, O.-S., & Kim, H. (2006). Medical waste management in Korea. Journal of Environmental Management, 80(2), 107-115.
15. Klangisn, P. H. (2011). Medical waste Treatment and Disposal Methods used by Hospitals in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. Journal of the Air & waste management Association, 516-526.
16. Liberti, L., Tursi, A., Costantino, N., Ferrara, L., & Nuzzo, G. (1996). Optimization of infectious hospital waste management in Italy: Part II. Waste characterization by origin. Waste management & research, 14(5), 417-431.
17. Marinković, N., Vitale, K., Holcer, N. J., Džakula, A., & Pavić, T. (2008). Management of hazardous medical waste in Croatia. Waste Management, 28(6), 1049-1056.
18. Mohee, R. (2005). Medical waste charecterisation in healthcare institution in mauritius. Waste management, 25(6), 575-581.
19. Ropeik, D., & Gray, G. M. (2002). Risk: a practical guide for deciding what's really safe and what's dangerous in the world around you: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
20. Rushbrook, P. (2000). Starting health care waste management in medical institutions OMS health care waste practical information series (Vol. 1): OMS.
21. Sabour, M. R., Mohamedifard, A., & Kamalan, H. (2007). A mathematical model to predict the composition and generation of hospital wastes in Iran. Waste Management, 27(4), 584-587.
22. Santosh Vani, S. B. (2017). Hazardous Waste- Impact on Health and Environment for sustainble devleopment in Indai. WSN, 158-172.
23. Shinee, E., Gombojav, E., Nishimura, A., Hamajima, N., & Ito, K. (2008). Healthcare waste management in the capital city of Mongolia. Waste Management, 28(2), 435-441.
24. Shreedevi, D. (2007). Hazardous waste managment at the healthcare facilities. India:
25. Tudor, T., Noonan, C., & Jenkin, L. (2005). Healthcare waste management: a case study from the National Health Service in Cornwall, United Kingdom. Waste Management, 25(6), 606-615.
26. HO. (2018). WHO Fact sheet. http : //
27. WHO. (2005). Management of Solid Health-Care Waste at Primary Health-care Centers. Geneve, Switzerland: WHO Document Production Services.



How to Cite

AL-Ghabban, M. M., Mizzouri, N. S., Mahmood, F. R., Hassan, H. H., & Abdulrahman, K. I. (2018). Assessment of Waste Generation rate of Medical Hazardous in Duhok Governorate (Proposal of alternative disposal and management methods). Academic Journal of Nawroz University, 7(4), 139–152.