Using groundwater levels and Specific Yield to Estimate the Recharge, South of Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Recharge estimation accurately is crucial to proper groundwater resource management, for the groundwater is dynamic and replenished natural resource. Usually recharge estimation depends on the; the water balance, water levels, and precipitation. This paper is studying the south-middle part of Erbil basin, with the majority of Quaternary sediments, the unconfined aquifer system is dominant, and the unsaturated zone is ranging from 15 to 50 meters, which groundwater levels response is moderate. The purpose of this study is quantification the natural recharge from precipitation. The water table fluctuation method is applied; using groundwater levels data of selected monitoring wells, neighboring meteorological station of the wells, and the specific yield of the aquifers. This method is widely used for its simplicity, scientific, realistic, and direct measurement. The accuracy depends on the how much the determination of specific yield is accurate, accuracy of the data, and the extrapolations of recession of groundwater levels curves of no rain periods. The normal annual precipitation there is 420 mm, the average recharge is 89 mm, and the average specific yield is around 0.03. The data of one water year of 2009 and 2010 has taken for some technical and accuracy reasons.
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