Analysis of the impact of the general budget on poverty in a sample of countries for the period (2000-2015)
The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of general budget on poverty’s indicators for sample of study consisting of six developing countries(Brazil, Bolivia, Honduras, Indonesia, Ukraine and Zambia) for the period (2000-2015), and explain the factors leads to existing individual poverty in third world due to fiscal policy follow by government of these countries and negative repercussions of these policies on society. In order to a chive the aim of the research, the study use panel Data through analytical descriptive approach enhancing by statistical tables. The empirical evidence support that there is strong relationship between poverty’s indicators and general budget clauses in these countries. This study concludes by important recommendation which is suggests that the government of these countries should re-direct government expenditures to a poor class of society.
1- المعهد العربي للتخطيط، مؤشرات قياس الفقر وعدم المساواة في التوزيع، بدون تاريخ.
2- جورج قرم، السكان والفقر والنمو في العالم العربي، المؤتمر الإقليمي للسكان والتنمية، القاهرة 24-26 حزيران/يونيو، 2013.
3- حسن عبد الكريم سلوم، ود. محمد خالد المهايني، الموازنة العامة للدولة بين الاعداد والتنفيذ والرقابة ( دراسة ميدانية للموازنة العراقية)، مجلة الادارة والاقتصاد، العدد 64،2007،ص ص 95-97)
4- سالم توفيق النجفي، الفقر في البلدان العربية وآليات انتاجه، بحوث اقتصادية عريبة، جامعة الموصل، العدد 38، 2007.
5- علي عبد القادر، السياسات الإقتصادية والفقر، المعهد العربي للتخطيط، 2010.
6- مصطفى منير محمود، وطارق محمود يسري، سياسات التنمية المستدامة للمجتمعات الريفية الفقيرة، مشروع مبادرة التوعية بالاهداف الانمائية للالفية، كلية التخطيط العمراني والاقليمي، جامعة القاهرة، مارس 2012.
1- عادل فليح العلي، وطلال محمود كداوي، اقتصاديات المالية العامة، الجزء الثاني الإيرادات العامة والموازنة العامة للدولة، الموصل، دار الكتب للطباعة والنشر، 1989.
2- عبد الرزاق الفارس، الفقر وتوزيع الدخل في الوطن العربي، مركز دراسات الوحدة العربية، بيروت، 2001.
ثالثاَ: المراجع باللغة الإنكليزية (Official Studies and Research)
1- Shaheed Abrahams, Budgeting, forecasting and financial planning as a strategic tool in the eastern capes manufacturing industry, submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of magister technologiae; cost and management accounting at the nelson Mandela metropolitan university, November 2012.
2- Hashem Pesaran, General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panals, Discussion Paper No.1240, August 2004.
3- Nazar Dahmardeh & Mahmoud Hashemi Tabar, Government Expenditures and its Impact on Poverty Reduction (Empirical from Sistan and Baluchestan Province of Iran), HRMARS, International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, January 2013, Vol. 2,No.1, ISSN: 2226-3624.
4- okpanachi Joshua and Mohammed nma ahmed, budget target setting and effective performance measurement in Nigerian hospitality industry, journal of finance and economics, published by science and education center of north America, departments of economics and management sciences faculty of arts and social sciences Nigerian April, 27.2013.
5- Poverty and Transport, A report prepared for the World Bank in Collaboration with DFID, David Booth, Lucia Hanmer & Elizabeth Lovell, Odi ( Overseas Development Institute), Portland House, Stage Place, London SWIE 5DP, Final Report, June, 2000.
6- Ricardo Gottschalk, Growth and Poverty Reduction in Developing Countries; How much External Financing will be needed in the new Century?, project on Multilateral Development Banks Commissioned by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Sweden, institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, December 2000.
7- Rashid Mehmood and Sara Sadiq, The Relationship between Government Expenditure and Poverty: A Cointegration Analysis, Romanian Journal of Fiscal Policy, Volume 1, ISSU 1, July-December 2010.
8- RS-Lecture 12, Heteroscedasticity, https://www.bauer.uh.edu/rsusmel/phd/ec1-12.pdf
رابعاً: الكتب (Books)
1. Damodar N. Gujarati, Basic Econometrics, Fourth Edition, the McGraw-Hill Companies, 2004.
2. Daniel Ciuiu, Pattern Classification using Polynomial and Linear Regression”, Proceedings of the International Conference Trends and Challenges in Applied Mathematics, Technical University of Civil Engineering, Bucharest, Romania,2008.
3. Egbide Ben-Caleb, PUBLIC BUDGETING AND POVERTY REDUCTION IN NIGERIA, CUGP070187, JANUARY, 2015.
4. Jeffrey L.Esser, recommended budget practices and local government budgeting, printed in united states of America, second printing, June. 1999.
5. Martin Ravallion, Shaohua Chen, What can new Survey data tell us about recent changes in distribution and poverty? World Bank Economic Review 11(2), 1997.
6. National Research Council , Population growth and economic development: policy question, 1986, Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. Committee on Population.
7. ILO NELSON ANAYO, Impact of Privatization of Public Enterprises on Poverty Reduction in Nigeria, A dissertation Submitted to the Department of Management, Faculty of Business Administration in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of Master of Business Administration(MBA) in Management, May, 2011.
8. Rafael E. De Hoyos & Vasilis Sarafidis, Testing for Cross- Sectional dependence in Panel data models, The Stata Journal 2006, 6 Number.
9. Ron P. Smith, PANEL TIME-SERISE, Department of Economics Mathematics and Statistics, Birkbeck University of London, August 2016.
10. Tijo Birowo, Relationship between Government Expe nditure and Poverty Arte in Indonesia, APU, Research Report to Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science of International Cooperation Policy, Graduate School of Asia Pacific Studies Ritsumeikanasia Pacific University Japan, 2011.
11. UNDP, Human Development Report 2013, The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World, Published for the United Nations Development Programmed (UNDP).
12. World Bank (OED), Morocco: Socioeconomic Impact of Rural Roads (Fourth Highway Project Loan 2254-MOR), Impact Evaluation Report No.15808. Washington, DC: World Bank, 1996.
World bank : a puplic expenditure review, report n° 36270,vol 1,2007,P4.( http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTALGERIA/Resources/ALGERIAPER_ENG_Volume_I.pdf
How to Cite
Authors retain copyright
The use of a Creative Commons License enables authors/editors to retain copyright to their work. Publications can be reused and redistributed as long as the original author is correctly attributed.
- The researcher(s), whether a single or joint research paper, must sell and transfer to the publisher (the Academic Journal of Nawroz University) through all the duration of the publication which starts from the date of entering this Agreement into force, the exclusive rights of the research paper/article. These rights include the translation, reuse of papers/articles, transmit or distribute, or use the material or parts(s) contained therein to be published in scientific, academic, technical, professional journals or any other periodicals including any other works derived from them, all over the world, in English and Arabic, whether in print or in electronic edition of such journals and periodicals in all types of media or formats now or that may exist in the future. Rights also include giving license (or granting permission) to a third party to use the materials and any other works derived from them and publish them in such journals and periodicals all over the world. Transfer right under this Agreement includes the right to modify such materials to be used with computer systems and software, or to reproduce or publish it in e-formats and also to incorporate them into retrieval systems.
- Reproduction, reference, transmission, distribution or any other use of the content, or any parts of the subjects included in that content in any manner permitted by this Agreement, must be accompanied by mentioning the source which is (the Academic Journal of Nawroz University) and the publisher in addition to the title of the article, the name of the author (or co-authors), journal’s name, volume or issue, publisher's copyright, and publication year.
- The Academic Journal of Nawroz University reserves all rights to publish research papers/articles issued under a “Creative Commons License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction of the paper/article by any means, provided that the original work is correctly cited.
- Reservation of Rights
The researcher(s) preserves all intellectual property rights (except for the one transferred to the publisher under this Agreement).
- Researcher’s guarantee
The researcher(s) hereby guarantees that the content of the paper/article is original. It has been submitted only to the Academic Journal of Nawroz University and has not been previously published by any other party.
In the event that the paper/article is written jointly with other researchers, the researcher guarantees that he/she has informed the other co-authors about the terms of this agreement, as well as obtaining their signature or written permission to sign on their behalf.
The author further guarantees:
- The research paper/article does not contain any defamatory statements or illegal comments.
- The research paper/article does not violate other's rights (including but not limited to copyright, patent, and trademark rights).
This research paper/article does not contain any facts or instructions that could cause damages or harm to others, and publishing it does not lead to disclosure of any confidential information.