English lexical enrichment: methods and their frequency/productivity in 1785, 1885, and 1985


  • Rozgar Y Omar Department of Mathematics, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil
  • Nechirvan Hassan Jawzal Department of English Language, Faculty of Humanities, University of Zakho




lexical enrichment, word-formation, frequency, productivity, OED


There are a number of different categories of enriching English vocabulary, and they are grouped into smaller methods based on the way they function. Some methods are productive while some others are creative. Besides, some methods are more or less frequent/productive than others which may be due to a number of reasons such as the nature of the language itself and possibly the period the language is undergone on. Therefore, three different years from different centuries, precisely 1785, 1885, and 1985, are taken from Oxford English Dictionary (OED) to discover the frequency/productivity of the methods in each. The concrete results show that the language and time play the role in the frequency and productivity of each method. They also indicate that the frequency of some methods has gradually increased while of some others decreased.

Keywords: lexical enrichment, word-formation, frequency, productivity, OED.


ژمارەیەک پۆلین هەن بۆ دەوڵەمەندکردنی ووشەی ئینگلیزی و کراونەتە چەند رێگەیە (میتۆد)کی بچووکتر لەسەر ئەو بنەمایەی کاردەکەن. لەکاتێکدا هەندێ لە رێگەکان بەرهەمهێنەرن بەڵام هەندێکی تر دروستکەرن. هەروەها، وە هەندێک لە رێگاکان کەمتر بەکاربەرن/ بەرهەمهێنەر لە هەندێکی تر، کە دەشێ لەبەر چەند هۆکارێک بن وەکو سروشتی خودی زمانەکە و ئەو ماوەیەی زمانەکە پێیدا تێپەڕیووە. بۆیە، سێ ساڵی جیاواز لە سێ سەدەی جیاواز، ١٧٨٥ و ١٨٨٥ و ١٩٨٥، هەڵبژێردراون لە 'فەرهەنگی ئینگلیزی ئۆکسفۆرد (OED)' بۆ لێکۆڵینەوە و دۆزینەوەی رێژەی بەکاربردن/بەرهەمهێنی میتۆدەکان. ئەنجامەکان دەریدەخەن کە زمان و کات رۆڵێکی کاریگەر دەگێڕن لە بەکاربردن و بەرهەمهێنی هەر میتۆدێک. وە ئەنجامەکان ئەوەش دەردەخەن کە بەکاربەری هەندێ میتۆد زیادیکردووە و لەکاتێک هەندێک کەمیکردووە.

ووشە گرنگەکان: دەوڵەمەندکردنی ووشەیی، ووشەسازی، بەکاربردن، بەرهەمهێنی، '(OED)'.



هناك عدد من الفئات المختلفة لتعزيز و لتكوين مفردات اللغة الإنجليزية ، ويتم تجميعها في طرق أصغر بناءً علی وظيفتهم في تكوين المفردات. بعض الطرق منتجة والبعض الآخر تكون مبدعة. من ناحية اخرى، تكون بعض الأساليب أكثر أو أقل تكرارًا/ إنتاجية من غيرها والتي قد تكون ناتجة عن عدد من الأسباب مثل طبيعة اللغة نفسها وربما الفترة التي تمر بها اللغة. لذلك ، تم أخذ ثلاث سنوات مختلفة من قرون مختلفة ، بالتحديد 1785 و 1885 و 1985 ، من قاموس أكسفورد الإنجليزي (OED) لاكتشاف تكرار / إنتاجية الطرق في كل منها. تظهر النتائج البحث بأن اللغة والوقت يلعبان دورًا في تكرار وإنتاجية كل طريقة. كما تشير إلى أن تواتر بعض الأساليب قد ازداد تدريجيًا بينما انخفض البعض الآخر.

الكلمات المفتاحية: الإثراء المعجمي ، تكوين الكلمات ، التردد ، الإنتاجية ، OED.


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How to Cite

Omar, R. Y., & Jawzal, N. H. (2021). English lexical enrichment: methods and their frequency/productivity in 1785, 1885, and 1985. Academic Journal of Nawroz University, 10(1), 28–35. https://doi.org/10.25007/ajnu.v10n1a706