Prevalence and risk factors of Giardia lamblia among infants and children in Duhok province/Kurdistan Region, Iraq


  • Idrees Yousif Ali Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Zakho University, Zakho, Duhok Province, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Wijdan Mohammed Salih Mero Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Zakho University, Zakho, Duhok Province, Kurdistan Region, Iraq (and Department of Computer Science, Nawroz University, Duhok Province, Kurdistan Region, Iraq)
  • Ahmed Basheer Mohammed Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Zakho University, Zakho, Duhok Province, Kurdistan Region, Iraq



The study was performed on 504 stool samples from infants and children with diarrhea who attended laboratories at Zakho General Hospital, Heevie Pediatric Hospital, Chamisku and Bersive 1 camps, and children who did not have diarrhea in various primary schools in Zakho between August 2021 and the end of July 2022. The study focused on 1 month of age to 15 years old. The collected stool specimens were examined macroscopically followed by microscopic examination using wet mount and concentration methods. The microscopic findings revealed an overall prevalence of Giardia lamblia at a rate of 6.15% (31/504), with slightly but non-significantly higher infection rate in males than in females (6.71% vs. 5.43%). The highest rate of infection was noted in the age group >3-6 years, while the lowest rate was in the age group >12-15 years, which were 11.76% and 1.45%, respectively. The infection rate was also twice as high among rural residents as compared to urban ones (10.34% and 3.32%), respectively. Infants and children who drink tap water had a high infection rate, whereas those drinking bottled water had a lower infection rate (8.05% and 1.92%), respectively. The infection rate was non-significantly higher in families with more than 6 members than in those with less than 6 members (7.06% and 5.22%) respectively.  In terms of monthly infection distribution, the highest prevalence was reported in July 11.29%, and the lowest was recorded in February (2.27%). Finally, the statistical analysis revealed a significant relationship between infection and age group, residency, as well as the types of drinking water consumed, but non-significant relationship between infection and gender, number of family members and months of sample collection.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdullah, I., Tak, H., Ahmad, F., & Gul, N. (2016). Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors for Giardiasis among Children in District Anantnag of Kashmir Valley, India. J GastroentHepatob Dis, 2, 98-106.

Al Saeed, A. T., & Issa, S. H. (2006). Frequency of Giardia lamblia among children in Dohuk, northern Iraq. EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 12 (5), 555-561, 2006.

Al Saqur, I. M., Al-Warid, H. S., & Albahadely, H. S. (2017). The prevalence of Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar among Iraqi provinces. Karbala International Journal of Modern Science, 3(2), 93-96.

Al-Ammash, M. S. J. (2015). Study on prevalences of Entameoba histolytica & Giardia lamblia in Samarra city. مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الطبية البيطرية| Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences, 6(2).

Al-Jabouri D. (2010). Prevalence of Giardia lamblia. University of Karbala Scientific Journal. p. 180-186.

Al-Marzoqi, A. H. M. (2004). Incidence of rotavirus and other enteropathogens causing acute diarrhea in Hillainfents (Doctoral dissertation, M. Sc. Thesis, Coll. Med., Univ. Babylon: 114 p).

Al-Ibady, Q. A. A. K. (2017). Prevalence the infection with Giardiasis in Baghdad province/Iraq. Journal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences, 25(3), 962-967.

Al-Saad, R. K., & Al-Emarah, G. Y. (2014). Epidemiological comparative study of Giardia lamblia between human and cow in Basrah, Iraq. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, 7(3), 843.

Al-Shaheen, Z., Al-Maki, A. K., & Hussien, K. K. (2007). A study on Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia infection among patient attending Quarna Hospital in Basra. Basra Journal of Veterinary Research, 6(2), 30-36.

Al-Warid, H. S. (2012). Study of some epidemiological aspects of Giardiasis in North of Baghdad. Baghdad Science Journal, 9(2), 251-258.

Ashour, A. A., & Ashour, A. A. (2021). Epidemiological Study of Giardia Intestinalis parastie Among Children with Diarrhea in Duhok. Diyala Journal for Pure Science, 17(01).

Asrat, A., Tewodros, D., & Alemayehu, W. (2011). Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasites among Delgi school children, North Gondar, Ethiopia. Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology, 3(5), 75-81.

AZNations (2022). Retrieved from

Brooke, M.M. ; Melvin,D.M.(2001). Morphology of diagnostic stages of intestinal parasites of human. U.S. department of health and human services, Second Edition.

Butty, E. T. (2011). Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia doudenalis in equines in Nineveh, Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 25(2), 43-46.

Daly, E. R., Roy, S. J., Blaney, D. D., Manning, J. S., Hill, V. R., Xiao, L., & Stull, J. W. (2010). Outbreak of giardiasis associated with a community drinking-water source. Epidemiology & Infection, 138(4), 491-500.

Despommier, D. D., Griffin, D. O., Gwadz, R. W., Hotez, P. J., & Knirsch, C. A. (2017). Parasitic Diseases. New York: Parasites Without Borders.

Einarsson, E., Ma’ayeh, S., & Svärd, S. G. (2016). An up-date on Giardia and giardiasis. Current opinion in microbiology, 34, 47-52.

Elsafi, S. H., Al-Maqati, T. N., Hussein, M. I., Adam, A. A., Hassan, M. M. A., & Al Zahrani, E. M. (2013). Comparison of microscopy, rapid immunoassay, and molecular techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Parasitology research, 112(4), 1641-1646.

Farthing, M. J., & Kelly, P. (2005). Protozoal gastrointestinal infections. Medicine, 33(4), 81-83.

Haydar, A. A. (1993). Study of the Prevalence of Human Intestinal Parasites in Al-Tameem Governorate and the Effect of Giardia lamblia in Some Blood Components (Doctoral dissertation, M. Sc. thesis, College of Medicine, Salahaddin University, Iraq).

Hussein, T. H. (2010). Prevalence and related risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children with acute diarrhea in thi-qar, southern Iraq. Thi-Qar Medical Journal (TQMJ), 4(4), 201068-201074.

Jaeffer, H. S. (2011). Prevalence of Gairdia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytic/Entamoeba dispare infections among children in AL-Shulaa and AL-Khadimya-Baghdad-Iraq. J Univ Anbar Pure Sci, 5, 6-10.

Jaran, A. S. (2016). Prevalence and seasonal variation of human intestinal parasites in patients attending hospital with abdominal symptoms in northern Jordan. EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 22(10), 756-760.

Kadir, M. A., AL-Masshhadani, A. M., Tahir, S. S., & Chapook, G. O. (2006). A Study on Giardia lamblia Infection Among Patients Attending Primary Health Care Centre In North Oil Company, Kirkuk. Al-Taqani, 19(1), 1-5.

Kayser, F. H., Bienz, K. A., Eckert, J., & Zinkernagel, R. M. (2005). Medical microbiology.

Khudhair, A. A. (2020). Prevalence of Giardia lamblia among Residents of Hawler, Soran and Chamchamal Cities, North of Iraq. Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences, 3(2), 28-36.

Kuick, M. A. (2004). Amoebiasis. Am famphy. Sei, 70, 15-20.

Maru, D. S. (2015). Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among school children in Adigrat town, northern Ethiopia. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Science and Technology, 4(1), 4943-4948.

Núñez, F. A., Hernández, M., & Finlay, C. M. (1999). Longitudinal study of giardiasis in three day care centres of Havana City. Acta tropica, 73(3), 237-242.

Pereira, M. D. G. C., Atwill, E. R., & Barbosa, A. P. (2007). Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, 49, 139-145. .

Salman, Y. J., Al-Taee, A. R. A., & Abid, A. M. (2016). Prevalence of Giardia lamblia among Iraqi displaced peoples in Kirkuk Province. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 5(1), 753-760.

Vahedi, M., Gohardehi, S., Sharif, M., & Daryani, A. (2012). Prevalence of parasites in patients with gastroenteritis at East of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Trop Biomed, 29(4), 568-74.

Yakoob, J., Jafri, W., Abid, S., Jafri, N., Hamid, S., Shah, H. A., ... & Shaikh, H. (2005). Giardiasis in patients with dyspeptic symptoms. World journal of gastroenterology: WJG, 11(42), 6667.

Younas, M., Shah, S., & Talaat, A. (2008). Frequency of Giardia lamblia infection in children with recurrent abdominal pain. Journal-Pakistan Medical Association, 58(4), 171.



How to Cite

Yousif Ali, I., Mohammed Salih Mero, W., & Basheer Mohammed, A. (2022). Prevalence and risk factors of Giardia lamblia among infants and children in Duhok province/Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Academic Journal of Nawroz University, 11(4), 147–152.




Most read articles by the same author(s)