Investigating Reading Strategies Used by Teachers at the Departments of English, Universities of Duhok and Nawroz
This paper aims at investigating the employment of reading strategies at the Departments of English, Universities of Duhok and Nawroz by the EFL teachers in their EFL classes. In order achieve the aims of the study and answer its questions a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire adopted from Oxford et al, (2004) was given to 10 EFL teachers; 6 females and 4 males, from the departments of English at the colleges of Languages and Basic Education at University of Duhok and Nawroz university . The questionnaire consists of 40 reading items grouped into three categories of (pre-reading stage, while-reading stage, and after-reading stage) that cover all the possible reading strategies used in EFL classes. The study has found out that all of the teachers are well aware of the reading strategies. However, the Global Reading strategies are preferred by teachers over the Support-reading strategies and Problem-solving strategies. Moreover, the participant teachers believe that all the reading strategies are important to be used in EFL reading classes. Finally, there were no statistically significant difference in gender between the teachers regarding their use of the reading strategies included in the study.
Amer, A. Al Barwani, T. & Ibrahim, M. (2010). Student teachers perceived use of online reading strategies. International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology, 6 (4), 102-113. Retrieved April 23, 2011 from http://www.ifets.info/journals/12_3/3.pdf.
Andrew, P. Johnson. (2008). Teaching Reading and Writing. New York: Rowman and Littlefield Education.
Bamanger, E. M., & Gashan, A. K. (2014). In-Service EFL Teachers’ Beliefs about Teaching Reading Strategies. English Language Teaching, 7(8), 14–22. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v7n8p14.
Çakıcı, D. (2016). EFL Teachers’ Beliefs about the Use of Reading Strategies. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 12 (2), 183-194. Retrieved January 12, 2016 from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jlls/issue/36115/405549.
Carrell, P.L. (1989). Metacognitive awareness and second language reading. The Modern Language Journal, 73(2), 121-134.
Chawwang, N. (2008). An Investigation of English Reading Problems of Thai 12th Grade Students in Nakhonratchasima Educational Regions 1, 2, 3, and 7 .Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand.
Chou, Y. C. (2008). Exploring the reflection of teachers’ beliefs about reading theories and strategies on their classroom practices. Feng Chia Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 16, 183-216.
Deregözü, A. & Üstün, B. (2021). A comparative study of reading strategies used by prospective language teachers. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching (IOJET), 8(2). 1250-1262.
Elizabeth et al. (2004). Teaching Cooperative Learning. USA: State University of New York Press.
Grellet, F. (1986). Developing Reading Skill. A Practical Guide to Reading Comprehension Exercise. London: Cambridge University Press.
Gunning, T. G. (2002). Assessing and correcting reading and writing difficulties. Boston: Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc.
Kern, R. G. (1989). Second language reading strategy instruction: Its effects on comprehension and word inference ability. The Modern Language Journal, 73(2), 135–147.
Mokhtari, K., & Sheorey, R. (2002). “Measuring ESL students’ awareness of reading strategies”, Journal of Developmental Education, 25(3): 2-10.
Mokthari, K. & Reichard, C. A. (2002). Assessing students’ metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(2), 249 – 259.
Mooney, M. E. (1990). Reading to, with, and by children. Katonah, NY: Richard C. Owen Publishers Inc.
Oxford, R., Cho, Y., Leung, S., & Kim, H. J. (2004). Effect of the presence and difficulty of task on strategy use: An exploratory study. IRAL, 42, 1-47.
Robinson, J. (2009). Triand is theory of interpersonal behaviour in understanding software piracy behaviour in the South African context. Master’s degree, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.
Solak, E., & Altay, F. (2014). The reading strategies used by prospective English teachers in turkish ELT context. Online Submission, 1(3), 78-89.
Urquhart, A. H., & Weir, C. J. (1998). Reading in a second language: Process, product and practice. London and New York: Longman.
Whitley, B. E. (2002). Principals of Research and Behavioural Science. McGraw-Hill, Boston.
Yukselir, C. (2014). An investigation into the reading strategy use of EFL prep-class students. Social and Behavioral Sciences Journal, 158, 65–72.
Zhang, L. J. (2008). Constructivist pedagogy in strategic reading instruction: Exploring pathways to learner development in the English as a second language (ESL) classrooms. Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 36, 89–116.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Academic Journal of Nawroz University
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright
The use of a Creative Commons License enables authors/editors to retain copyright to their work. Publications can be reused and redistributed as long as the original author is correctly attributed.
- The researcher(s), whether a single or joint research paper, must sell and transfer to the publisher (the Academic Journal of Nawroz University) through all the duration of the publication which starts from the date of entering this Agreement into force, the exclusive rights of the research paper/article. These rights include the translation, reuse of papers/articles, transmit or distribute, or use the material or parts(s) contained therein to be published in scientific, academic, technical, professional journals or any other periodicals including any other works derived from them, all over the world, in English and Arabic, whether in print or in electronic edition of such journals and periodicals in all types of media or formats now or that may exist in the future. Rights also include giving license (or granting permission) to a third party to use the materials and any other works derived from them and publish them in such journals and periodicals all over the world. Transfer right under this Agreement includes the right to modify such materials to be used with computer systems and software, or to reproduce or publish it in e-formats and also to incorporate them into retrieval systems.
- Reproduction, reference, transmission, distribution or any other use of the content, or any parts of the subjects included in that content in any manner permitted by this Agreement, must be accompanied by mentioning the source which is (the Academic Journal of Nawroz University) and the publisher in addition to the title of the article, the name of the author (or co-authors), journal’s name, volume or issue, publisher's copyright, and publication year.
- The Academic Journal of Nawroz University reserves all rights to publish research papers/articles issued under a “Creative Commons License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction of the paper/article by any means, provided that the original work is correctly cited.
- Reservation of Rights
The researcher(s) preserves all intellectual property rights (except for the one transferred to the publisher under this Agreement).
- Researcher’s guarantee
The researcher(s) hereby guarantees that the content of the paper/article is original. It has been submitted only to the Academic Journal of Nawroz University and has not been previously published by any other party.
In the event that the paper/article is written jointly with other researchers, the researcher guarantees that he/she has informed the other co-authors about the terms of this agreement, as well as obtaining their signature or written permission to sign on their behalf.
The author further guarantees:
- The research paper/article does not contain any defamatory statements or illegal comments.
- The research paper/article does not violate other's rights (including but not limited to copyright, patent, and trademark rights).
This research paper/article does not contain any facts or instructions that could cause damages or harm to others, and publishing it does not lead to disclosure of any confidential information.