Kurdish- Arabic Text in Computer with Non-Standards, Challenges and Recommendations


  • Sardar O. Salih Department Of Computer Science, College of Science, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region- Iraq




Script, character, Unicode, Kurdish-Arabic characters, Encoding.


 This paper determines challenges when using Kurdish-Arabic script (Kurdish and Arabic characters) with computer. Any written script in computer passes in three steps, started from input characters (creating characters), store created characters (encoding) and displaying characters on screen or printing on printer. In Kurdish-Arabic written system (Central Kurdistan) challenges occur on these three steps, as a result, there is not standard (compatible issue) for Kurdish-Arabic script, such as keyboard layout (position of characters and ordered on board) (input issue), encoding for storing script and fonts to displaying Kurdish-Arabic script when using Arabic based keyboard. This research tries to find issues with cases while using this script and proposed recommendations which help to reduce these challenges.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Esmaili, K. S. (2012). Challenges in Kurdish text processing. ArXiv Preprint ArXiv:1212.0074.
2. Gautier, G. (1998). Building a kurdish language corpus: An overview of the technical problems. Proceedings of ICEMCO. Retrieved from http://ggautierk.free.fr/e/icem_98.htm
3. Gautier, G. H. (1996). Dirêjî Kurdî : a lexicographic environment for Kurdish language using 4th Dimension®. In C. University (Ed.), 5th International Conference and Exhibition on Multilingual Computing (ICEMCO) (Vol. 5, p. Session of the 12th April). Londres, United Kingdom. Retrieved from https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00676294
4. ISO-8859-1 Reference. (2015). Retrieved 7 October 2017, from https://www.w3schools.com/charsets/ref_html_8859.asp
5. QasemiZadeh, B., Rahimi, S., & Ghalati, M. S. (2005). Challenges in Persian Electronic Text Analysis, 5.
6. Shamsfard, M. (2011). Challenges and open problems in Persian text processing. Proceedings of LTC, 11.
7. Farghaly, A., & Shaalan, K. (2009). Arabic natural language processing: Challenges and solutions. ACM Transactions on Asian Language Information Processing (TALIP), 8(4), 14.
8. Unicode. (2017). Unicode. Retrieved 6 October 2017, from http://www.unicode.org/standard/WhatIsUnicode.html
9. w3school. (2016). HTML Character Sets. Retrieved 7 October 2017, from https://www.w3schools.com/charsets/default.asp
10. W3Team. (2017). CSS Web Safe Fonts. Retrieved 30 June 2018, from https://www.w3schools.com/cssref/css_websafe_fonts.asp



How to Cite

Salih, S. O. (2020). Kurdish- Arabic Text in Computer with Non-Standards, Challenges and Recommendations. Academic Journal of Nawroz University, 9(1), 134–139. https://doi.org/10.25007/ajnu.v9n1a584