Economic and financial impacts of self-government on the export and production of oil in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq


  • Hashim M. S. Rashid Department of Economics, Nawroz University, Kurdistan region of Iraq



  This study discusses the details of oil in the Kurdistan Region and the obstacles that can face 

this policy with the central government about the form and quality of oil contracts signed with foreign oil companies and the way of selling and exporting oil of the Kurdistan Region. Constitutional disputes and the problems faced by the region regarding economic independence and the issuance of laws on oil and natural gas and the law of oil revenues and the application of the principles of transparency in the extractive industries through the system of contracts and the conclusion of the contract with Deloitte to audit the oil revenues of the Kurdistan Region. But because of excessive use of constitutional rights by the central government and the Kurdistan Regional Government emerged legal problems in the field of oil contracts and the share of the Kurdistan Region of the public budget in Iraq and non-delivery of oil prescribed by the government of the Territory and the direction of the decision of oil independence and other problems, Cut the relations between the central government and the Kurdistan Regional Government for the period (2014 -2018) in addition to the effects of the war against terrorism and low oil prices in the world markets, legal obstacles to the sale and export of oil to the region and complaints by the central government and The sound and transparent administration of the oil file and the secretions of holding the referendum on the independence of the Kurdistan Region and regional conspiracies, all this led to the failure of the project of economic independence in the Kurdistan Region.


Download data is not yet available.


1.6ژێده‌ر ب زمانێ كوردى
1. وه‌زاره‌تى سامانه‌ سرۆشتیه‌كان، راپۆرتى مانگانه‌، ژماره‌4، كانونى دووه‌م 2014. ل 17، ل وێب سایتێ وه‌زاره‌تێ:
2. 2.حكومه‌تا هه‌رێما كوردستانێ، وه‌زاره‌تا سامانێن سرۆشتى، كۆمه‌كا راپۆرتێن هه‌یڤانه‌ یێن سالا 2016.
3. مالپه‌رى دوارۆژ، 2018، لیژنه‌ى سامانه‌ سرۆشتیه‌كان: راپۆرته‌كه‌ى كۆمپانیاى دیلۆیت چاره‌سه‌رى شه‌فافیه‌تى نه‌وت ناكات، ل سه‌ر لینكێ: ttps://
2.6ژێده‌ر ب زمانێ عه‌ره‌بى
1. القادري، رعد ،2016، قراءة في النزاع النفطي بين الحكومة الاتحادية وحكومة إقليم كوردستان، منشورات مركز البيان للدراسات والتخطيط، بغداد، العراق ، على الرابط:
2. الوردي، سليم، 2013، الاستبداد النفطي في العراق المعاصر، دار الجواهري للنشر والتوزيع الطبعة الأولى، بغداد ـ جمهورية العراق.
3. هاينبرغ، ريتشارد، 2005، سراب النفط ـ النفط والحرب ومصير المجتمعات الصناعية، الدار العربية للعلوم، الطبعة الأولى، بيروت ـ لبنان.
4. حسن، محمد جابر، 2015، نفط العراق ـ ما بعد الذكريات والسنين العجاف، دار الكتب العلمية، بغداد ـ جمهورية العراق.
5. قانون النفط والغاز لإقليم كوردستان، رقم (22)، 2007، منشورة في جريدة (وقائع كوردستان)، بتاريخ 15/11/2007.
6. قانون صندوق كوردستان للعائدات النفطية والغازية، رقم (2)، 2015، المنشورة في موقع برلمان كوردستان، على الرابط:

7. عبد العالي، امجد صباح، 2008، عقود بديلة لاتفاقيات المشاركة بالانتاج (PSA) لتطوير القطاع النفطي في العراق، جامعة البصرة، مجلة العلوم الاقتصادية، العدد (21) ، المجلد الخامس ، حزيران.
8. عيد، وردة هاشم علي، 2013، صراع القوى العالمية حول مناطق الطاقة، المكتب العربي للمعارف، الطبعة الأولى، القاهرة ـ جمهورية مصر العربية.
3.6ژێده‌ر ب زمانێ ئینگلیزى
1. Ahmad, Paiman. R, 2018, The Politics of Oil in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, Academic and Applied Research in Military and Public Management Science (AARMS), Vol. 17, No. 3 (2018), PP 5–18. On link:
3. Bindemann, Kirsten (1999), Production-Sharing Agreements:
4. An Economic Analysis, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, WPM 25, October.
5. 3, Brisa, Maj, 2012, Turkey’s dramatic shift towards Iraqi Kurdistan: politics before peace pipelines, Turkish Policy Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 53-61.
6. 20. Soderbery, E & Philips, David, 2015, Task Force Report State Nancy –Building in Iraqi Kurdistan, Institute for The Study of Human Rights, Columbia University, on Website:
8. Crescent petroleum, Projects in Kurdistan Region, Iraq Benefiting the People, on Link:
10. Central Bank of Russia, 2011, Twenty-Fourth Meeting of the IMF Committee on Balance of Payments Statistics, Moscow, Russia, October. On Link:
12. Dana Gas & Crescent Petroleum, 2018, Dana Gas and Crescent Petroleum Announce 30% Gas Production Increase in Kurdistan Region, on Link:
13. End- us/Lists/Press%20Releases/ Attachments/298/Production%20Growth.pdf /
14. Deloitte, 2018, Report on KRG Oil Export Consumption and Revenues, on Link:
17. Elliott, Stephen A. & Berry, Louis B.,2012, Natural Gas development in Kurdistan a Financial Assessment, Belter Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, August. On website:
19. Frappe, Carlo, 2016, The Energy Factor: Oil and State building in Iraqi Kurdistan, in Link:
21. Gene Energy Report, 2014, Unaudited results for the six months to 30 June 2014, August, in website:
23. Government of India, 2012, Report of the Committee on the PSC Mechanism in Petroleum Industry, on Link:
25. Hanna & Partners, 2015, Kurdistan oil & Gas outlook, Report, Atlantic council, December. On link:
27. Kane, Sean (2010), Iraq’s Oil Politics- where agreement might be found, United States- Institute of Peace, January, No. 64, on Link:
29. Kurdistan Region Government, 2018. Deloitte Report on KRG Oil Export Consumption and Revenues for First Half of 2017, on Link:
31. Macerich, David S. and Samarra, Adnan I, 2015, History of hydrocarbon exploration in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, Geografia - Gulf Petrol ink, Bahrain, v. 20, no. 2, PP 181-220.
32. Mills, Robin, 2016, Under the Mountains: Kurdish Oil and Regional Politics, University of Oxford, the Oxford institute for Energy studies, WPM. 63.
33. Ministry of natural Resources, 2013, about Natural gas reserves in Iraqi Kurdistan, on Link:
35. Ministry of Natural Recourses, 2013, Oil Production, Export & Consumption Report 2003-2013, December. On Link:
37. Ministry of Natural Resources, 2015, Oil Production, Export & consumption Report (including Export Revenue), on Link:
38. Ministry of Natural Resources, Kurdistan Oil production by Field & by Operator, January 2015-September 2016 (Report), Kurdistan Region. On Link:
39. Ottaway, David B., 2013, Iraq’s Kurdistan Takes a Giant Step Toward Independence, Middle East Program, Wilson center, Viewpoints, No.46, December.
40. Sosnowska. R, M, Meads Villafuerte P. & Thomas, 2008, managing the Oil Revenue Boom: The Role of Fiscal Institutions, international Monetary Fund (IMF), Working Paper (260), and Washington D.C
41. Roberts, John, 2016, Iraqi Kurdistan Oil & Gas Outlook, Atlantic Council, Global Energy Center and Dinu Patriciu Eurasia Center, September. On Link:



How to Cite

Rashid, H. M. S. (2020). Economic and financial impacts of self-government on the export and production of oil in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Academic Journal of Nawroz University, 9(3), 35–53.