The “Linguistic Imperialism” Aspect of English as a Foreign Language from Educated Iraqis’ Viewpoint
Keywords:Linguistic Imperialism, Global Language, Lingua Franca, Language Dominance, Language Policies
A language is said to be dominating and prevalent when the military and economic forces of a powerful country make it either control or endanger the language(s) of less power countries. As such, the heavily supported spread of English language by UK and USA and duly the importance granted to the language as a lingua franca have made English acquire the label of global linguistic imperialism (LI). This research attempts to shed light on the LI aspect of English as a foreign language in Iraq from educated Iraqis’ viewpoint. It further aims to answer the following prime question: Has English language acquired a “LI” aspect in Iraq after 2003; the date of American occupation, in the light of the evasive and dominant nature of its use in the different domains of Iraqis’ life? Accordingly, a questionnaire of 25 items was first presented to a panel of jurors to approve its face and content validity. It was then administered to a sample of 200 educated Iraqis chosen randomly from different academic and social sectors to test its reliability. The results show that educated Iraqis opined the existence of a LI aspect of English in Iraq after 2003. Furthermore, their views did not vary with regard to the wide use of English in the different domains of the Iraqi society.
Ahmed, H.A. (1989). The Role of Attitudes and Motivations in Teaching and Learning Foreign Language: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation into the Teaching and Learning of English in Iraqi Preparatory Schools. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Department of Education. University of Stirling.
Al-Chalabi, S.A. (1976). Teaching English as a Foreign Language in Iraq with Emphasis on the in - Service Training of Secondary Schools Teachers of English. Baghdad: Dar Al-Jahidh Press.
Al-Jarf, R.S. (2008). The Power of the English Language in the Past, Present and Future. Saudi Arabia: King Saud University: College of Languages and Translation.
Alqaisi, K. (2005). American Economic Decisions Await Application in Iraq. Al-Hayat Newspaper, No. 15361.
Crystal, D. (1997). English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Graddol, D. (1997). The Future of English Language. London: The English Company Ltd.
Lin, Y.H. (2013), Critical Perspective on Global English: A Study of their Implications. Available from: http://www.benz.nchu.edu.tw/~intergrams/intergrams/132/132-lhy.pdf.
Park, H. (2008). Linguistic imperialism and the English-learning z in Korea: A case analysis of weekend Korean schools in the U.S. By the Academy of Korean Studies. The Review of Korean Studies, 11(2), 117-137.
Penny, W.K. (2002), Linguistic Imperialism: The Role of English as an International Language. Vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press.p1-24.
Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Salih, A.M. (2005). The influence of invasion on language change through borrowing words. Tikrit University Journal for Humanities, 13(2), 82-91.
Zebari, A. (2013), American University Graduates Students from Across Iraq. Available from: http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/06/iraqi-university-unites-different-groups.html.
How to Cite
Authors retain copyright
The use of a Creative Commons License enables authors/editors to retain copyright to their work. Publications can be reused and redistributed as long as the original author is correctly attributed.
- The researcher(s), whether a single or joint research paper, must sell and transfer to the publisher (the Academic Journal of Nawroz University) through all the duration of the publication which starts from the date of entering this Agreement into force, the exclusive rights of the research paper/article. These rights include the translation, reuse of papers/articles, transmit or distribute, or use the material or parts(s) contained therein to be published in scientific, academic, technical, professional journals or any other periodicals including any other works derived from them, all over the world, in English and Arabic, whether in print or in electronic edition of such journals and periodicals in all types of media or formats now or that may exist in the future. Rights also include giving license (or granting permission) to a third party to use the materials and any other works derived from them and publish them in such journals and periodicals all over the world. Transfer right under this Agreement includes the right to modify such materials to be used with computer systems and software, or to reproduce or publish it in e-formats and also to incorporate them into retrieval systems.
- Reproduction, reference, transmission, distribution or any other use of the content, or any parts of the subjects included in that content in any manner permitted by this Agreement, must be accompanied by mentioning the source which is (the Academic Journal of Nawroz University) and the publisher in addition to the title of the article, the name of the author (or co-authors), journal’s name, volume or issue, publisher's copyright, and publication year.
- The Academic Journal of Nawroz University reserves all rights to publish research papers/articles issued under a “Creative Commons License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction of the paper/article by any means, provided that the original work is correctly cited.
- Reservation of Rights
The researcher(s) preserves all intellectual property rights (except for the one transferred to the publisher under this Agreement).
- Researcher’s guarantee
The researcher(s) hereby guarantees that the content of the paper/article is original. It has been submitted only to the Academic Journal of Nawroz University and has not been previously published by any other party.
In the event that the paper/article is written jointly with other researchers, the researcher guarantees that he/she has informed the other co-authors about the terms of this agreement, as well as obtaining their signature or written permission to sign on their behalf.
The author further guarantees:
- The research paper/article does not contain any defamatory statements or illegal comments.
- The research paper/article does not violate other's rights (including but not limited to copyright, patent, and trademark rights).
This research paper/article does not contain any facts or instructions that could cause damages or harm to others, and publishing it does not lead to disclosure of any confidential information.