The impact of some new economic indicators on sustainable development in Iraq for the period 2000-2020


  • Havrst Sardar Rashid Bamerni Faculty of Administration and Economics, University of Dohuk, Kurdistan, Iraq
  • Zaki Matta Aqrawi College of Administration and Economics, University of Dohuk, Kurdistan, Iraq



The issue of finding alternatives to fossil fuels, represented by oil, gas and coal, has become urgent and inevitable in light of the circumstances and changes that the economies of the whole world are going through, including the rentier Iraqi economy, which will enter, if not enter, a critical stage in this field. Therefore, the matter requires preparing a set of strategies, especially in the long term. Replacing these traditional sources of energy with alternatives from renewable resources is the only way out of absolute dependency on rentierism, especially since Iraq has a set of elements that qualify it in the direction of substitution, leading to renewable energy instead of traditional energies. Iraq has many elements for the transition towards... Renewable energy, including natural resources, is very suitable for the transition, and others are human capable of this new trend. With this approach, Iraq has overcome the financial and economic hardships by increasing the number of economic sectors that make up the matrix of the national economy, which will achieve economic growth and development in the future. Given Iraq’s location in the tropical region with enormous capabilities, benefiting from sunlight throughout the year can be stimulating. There is a strong trend towards obtaining energy from the sun instead of oil or gas, and this is also the case with many natural resources that are widely and continuously present in Iraq, including wind, biomass, water, and others. Therefore, in this study, you analyzed the relationship between the possible independent variables of renewable resources, from which sustainable sustainability and emission were chosen. Carbon dioxide and traditional energy consumption on the one hand, and the per capita share of GDP as a dependent variable on the other hand. The results, after conducting a test of the stability of the time series of the variables, tend towards using the (ARDL) methodology to analyze this relationship, which showed that there is a common integration between the study variables in the short term. It is the long term, but this relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variables did not appear to be in complete agreement according to the economic theory for some variables, as the relationship of the carbon dioxide emission variables appeared to be compatible with the economic theory and natural relationships. This is also the case with regard to the oil consumption variable, as the logical relationship was explained clearly. Among the variables adopted (sustainable development), although this relationship was not significant, the reason for this was attributed to the lack of renewable energy sources in Iraq to replace oil consumption, while the relationship of the variable number of industrial facilities was positive and significant, but it does not reflect the environmental point of view. Finally, the value added variable for the agricultural sector had a negative sign and somewhat low significance. This is because the agricultural sector is suffering from severe weakness and the lack of interest in it led to this result. The study concluded with a set of conclusions on the basis of which a number of proposals were made to push towards the use of renewable energies in the future instead of renewable energy sources. Conventional energy.


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How to Cite

Sardar Rashid Bamerni, H., & Matta Aqrawi, Z. . (2024). The impact of some new economic indicators on sustainable development in Iraq for the period 2000-2020. Academic Journal of Nawroz University, 13(2), 779–800.