The Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth: A case study of (Middle East and North Africa - excluding High income countries)
The study aims at estimating and analyzing the impact of human capital investments in economic growth in (Middle east and north Africa (excluding High income countries) for the period (1990-2018) to test the hypothesis that investment spending on the development of the human resource has a positive effect on economic growth. A long run cointegration relationship between the variables has been found, the results indicate that all of the explanatory variables are statistically significant at the 5% level or less, but while the impact of (EMP, SES, SET, GCFG) is positive, it was found that (SEP) has a negative effect in economic growth.so providing schools that fail to teach basic skills does no promote output growth. So, providing schools that fail to teach basic skills does no promote output growth. Therefore, slowing the pace of the provision of schools to a rate that also permits the development of quality learning appears to be a best choice for a good solution. So, providing schools that fail to teach basic skills does no promote output growth. Therefore, slowing the pace of the provision of schools to a rate that also permits the development of quality learning appears to be a best choice for a good solution.
2. Barro r. & Jong lee, A new data set of educational attainment in the World 1950-2010, NBER working papers, JEL No. F43, I21, O11, O4, April 2010,2-49.
3. Barro R., Human Capital and Growth, The American Economic Review, Vol. 91, No. 2, (May, 2001), pp. 12-17.
4. Becker Gary S., Human Capital and the Economy, proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 136, No. 1 (Mar., 1992), pp.85-92., Human Capital and the Economy, proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 136, No. 1 (Mar., 1992), pp.85-92.
5. Benhabib J.& Spiegel M., The role of human capital in economic development
6. Evidence from aggregate cross-country data, Journal of Monetary Economics 34 (1994) 143-173.
7. Bobetko A. et el, Human Capital and Economic Growth in CEE Countries and Other Emerging Markets, Twenty third Dubrovnik Economic Conference, Croatia, June 4 – 6, 2017, 2-19.
8. Brinkley I., Defining the knowledge economy, Knowledge economy programme report, first published July 2006, [email protected]
9. Dakhli M.& clercq D., Human Capital, Social Capital and Innovation: A Multi-Country Study, Institute of International Business; J. Mack Robinson College of Business;[email protected] or [email protected], 2003,1-37.
10. Emeka N.& Uko A., Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) cointegration technique: application and interpretation, Journal of Statistical and Econometric Methods, vol.5, no.4, 2016, 63-91.
11. Hakoma M.& Sheshamani V., the impact of human capital on economic growth in Zambia, An econometric analysis, International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, Vol. V, Issue 4, April 2017.
12. Hanushek & Kimko, Schooling, Labor-Force Quality, and the Growth of Nations, The American Economic Review, Vol. 90, No. 5 (Dec., 2000), pp. 1184-1208.
13. Hong L.T.& Stinson T., An Alternative Measure of the Human Capital Stock, Economic Development center, Bulletin Number 97-1, April 1997.
14. John G. et el, Measuring Human capital: Alternative methods and International evidence, The Korean Economic Review, Volume 24, Number 2, Winter 2008
15. Jorgenson D. & Fraumeni B., The Accumulation of Human and Nonhuman Capital,1948 -84, University of Chicago Press, 1989, 230-232.
16. Lucas R., Human Capital and Growth, The American Economic Review, Vol. 105, No. 5, (MAY 2015), pp. 85-88.
17. Mankiw G. et el, A Contribution to the empirics of economic growth, NBER working papers,1990.
18. Mireille L. et el, On the Concept and Dimensions of Human Capital in a Knowledge-Based Economy Context, Canadian Public Policy / Analyse de Politiques, Vol. 25, No. 1 (Mar., 1999), pp. 87-100.
19. OECD, Human capital and its Measurement, The 3rd OECD World Forum on “Statistics, Knowledge and Policy, Busan, Korea - 27-30 October 2009.4-15.
20. Paulo M. & Fernandez E., The role of human capital in economic growth: the case of Spain, IMF working papers,2000.
21. Pelinescu E. The impact of human capital on economic growth, Procedia Economics and Finance 22 (2015) 184 – 190.
22. Philip A. & Howit Peter, A Model of Growth Through Creative Destruction." Econometrica 60, no. 2: 323-351.
23. Qadri F.& Waheed A., Human Capital and Economic Growth: Time Series Evidence from Pakistan, Business review, January 2011,3-18.
24. Qaiser A. & Foreman J., Human Capital and Economic Growth: Pakistan, 1960-2003, The Lahore Journal of Economics13: 1 (Summer 2008): pp. 1-27.
25. .Qaiser A., The Role of Human Capital in Economic Growth: A Comparative Study of Pakistan and India, The Pakistan Development Review 39: 4 Part II (Winter 2000) pp. 451–473.
26. Romer p., The Origins of Endogenous Growth, Journal of Economic Perspectives—Volume 8, Number 1—Winter 1994–PP3–22.
27. Solow R. M., “A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth” the Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 70, No. 1 (Feb., 1956), pp. 65-94
28. Schultz T., Investment in Human Capital, The American Economic Review, Vol. 51, No. 1 (Mar., 1961), pp. 1-17.
29. Syed W. & Ali Shah, Human Capital and Economic Growth: Evidence from
30. Selected Asian Countries, Journal of Resources Development and Management, Vol.11, 2015.
31. UN, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Guide on Measuring Human Capital, Newyourk,
32. Wang Y. & Shasha L., Education, Human Capital and Economic Growth: Empirical Research on 55 Countries and Regions (1960-2009), Theoretical Economics Letters, 2016, 6, 347-355.
How to Cite
Authors retain copyright
The use of a Creative Commons License enables authors/editors to retain copyright to their work. Publications can be reused and redistributed as long as the original author is correctly attributed.
- The researcher(s), whether a single or joint research paper, must sell and transfer to the publisher (the Academic Journal of Nawroz University) through all the duration of the publication which starts from the date of entering this Agreement into force, the exclusive rights of the research paper/article. These rights include the translation, reuse of papers/articles, transmit or distribute, or use the material or parts(s) contained therein to be published in scientific, academic, technical, professional journals or any other periodicals including any other works derived from them, all over the world, in English and Arabic, whether in print or in electronic edition of such journals and periodicals in all types of media or formats now or that may exist in the future. Rights also include giving license (or granting permission) to a third party to use the materials and any other works derived from them and publish them in such journals and periodicals all over the world. Transfer right under this Agreement includes the right to modify such materials to be used with computer systems and software, or to reproduce or publish it in e-formats and also to incorporate them into retrieval systems.
- Reproduction, reference, transmission, distribution or any other use of the content, or any parts of the subjects included in that content in any manner permitted by this Agreement, must be accompanied by mentioning the source which is (the Academic Journal of Nawroz University) and the publisher in addition to the title of the article, the name of the author (or co-authors), journal’s name, volume or issue, publisher's copyright, and publication year.
- The Academic Journal of Nawroz University reserves all rights to publish research papers/articles issued under a “Creative Commons License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction of the paper/article by any means, provided that the original work is correctly cited.
- Reservation of Rights
The researcher(s) preserves all intellectual property rights (except for the one transferred to the publisher under this Agreement).
- Researcher’s guarantee
The researcher(s) hereby guarantees that the content of the paper/article is original. It has been submitted only to the Academic Journal of Nawroz University and has not been previously published by any other party.
In the event that the paper/article is written jointly with other researchers, the researcher guarantees that he/she has informed the other co-authors about the terms of this agreement, as well as obtaining their signature or written permission to sign on their behalf.
The author further guarantees:
- The research paper/article does not contain any defamatory statements or illegal comments.
- The research paper/article does not violate other's rights (including but not limited to copyright, patent, and trademark rights).
This research paper/article does not contain any facts or instructions that could cause damages or harm to others, and publishing it does not lead to disclosure of any confidential information.